EXPLORE BY YEAR
— 1940s —
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
October 2, 1940
Dr. Nelson Glueck
162 Glenn Mary
First, let me thank you for my copy of: “THE OTHER SIDE OF THE JORDAN”. I want to congratulate you on the scholarly manner in which it is prepared, and I shall devour the contents in the near future.
It was certainly a great pleasure for us to have the opportunity to see you and Mrs. Glueck, and Charles Jonathon, in Cincinnati, and to hear of your interesting time in returning home.
Mrs. Lowdermilk and Mack join me in thanks for a most enjoyable evening in your home. Please extend our best wishes and Dr. and Mrs. Iglauer, and be sure to let us know when you will be in Washington again.
Very sincerely yours,
- C. Lowdermilk
I have taken the liberty of copying your suggestions for the policy of the American Jewish Committee. I would like to have the time to sit down and talk it all over with you. Maybe before you go abroad again, we will have an opportunity.
If I don’t see you, please be assured that 1943 was richer because I met you then. However, I hope 1944, and thereafter, I am going to see much more of you, and that it will be a happy time of reunion for you and your family.
Fred Lazarus, Jr.
- It is necessary immediately to reorganize the American Jewish Committee, and find a broader basis of support than it now enjoys. A competent organizer should be obtained to direct a program for the enrollment in the very near future of a minimum of 100,000 members. This figure should easily be enlarged within a couple of years to at least 200,000. There is a very large body of Jews which at the present time already sympathizes with the viewpoint of the American Jewish Committee.
- The American Council for Judaism which is making efforts to obtain a fairly broad basis of adherents for its work and point of view ought to be persuaded to merge its efforts with those of the AJC, forego its own identity, and forget the extremes which make it to a degree the opposite of the Revisionist type of Zionism which is now in the saddle. The American Council for Judaism in its present complexion is conditioned by a Philosophy of Fear. The Zionist Organization of America, together with its cover organization, the American Jewish Conference, is animated by a Philosophy of Defeat. The one says that Jews are like everybody else with the exception of their religion, (which is correct), but that Palestine is of no more importance to Jews than any other country (which is incorrect). The Zionists dominated today by Revisionists or Revisionist Philosophy say that Palestine is the only country in the world for Jews, and that the lot of the Jews outside of it will be forever unfortunate, and that the only hope therefore is for Jews to be given Palestine as The Jewish Commonwealth, to which all Jews in and outside of Palestine will belong.
- The American Jewish Committee says or ought to say something like the following, which would be a correct and sane mean between these two extremes, and on the basis of which an appeal for popular and widespread support and adherence might be gained:
- We are American who are Jews, primarily because we adhere to Judaism as a religion. b) We have always been and will ever remain proudly conscious of our close relationship with Jews throughout the world. c) We think that Palestine occupies a preeminent place in the affections and interests of Jews, and will to everything within our power to help Jews who want to immigrate there achieve their ambition, and to assist the growth of Jewish cultural institutions, such as the Hebrew University, in Palestine. d) At the same time, we shall do everything within our power to help homeless Jews settle anywhere in the world where opportunity may present itself, who either do not desire to go to or cannot for the present be accommodated in Palestine. e) Above all, we shall insist that a man’s birth place, wherever it may be, is his home, and that he enjoy the full right to live there in basic equality with his neighbor, regardless of whatever differences there may be between them of religion, color, or ethnic background. If such human rights do not generally prevail throughout the world, there would be no security for a Jewish Commonwealth of Palestine, however many millions might be crowded in there. We deem it proper, on the other hand, for citizens of Palestine to form any governmental organization they please to live under, and can conceive of the Jews there someday electing to live under their own form of government.
- Nothing, however, should be allowed to interfere with the rights of Christians and Muslims there to whom also Palestine is precious.
Their religious and cultural and legal rights must no less than those of Jews be safeguarded by the foreign power (or powers) that apparently, in the final analysis, will always control the destinies of Palestine.
- The American Jewish Committee holds that the White Paper, preventing the further immigration soon of almost any Jews into Palestine, should be revoked, and that Jews, in accordance with the Balfour Declaration, should be allowed to immigrate into Palestine. That immigration should be limited only by the economic absorptive capacity of the country, which should be established by a committee of states, preferably Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Holland, purposely other than any power or all of the powers directly concerned with ultimate direction of the affairs of the land.
- The American Jewish Committee holds furthermore that the present land restrictions in Palestine, which make it impossible for a Jew to purchase land there except in sharply restricted and increasingly confining areas, must be abrogated. The fenced in field to which the White Paper and the accompanying land sale restrictions limit Jews might better be known as a Pale than Palestine. The AJC has nothing in common with traducers of Great Britain, remembering among other things, that it was under the aegis of that power that half a million Jews were able to settle in Palestine during the last 25 years. It feels, however, that an unfair and dishonorable distinction has been applied to Jews by restricting them to what amounts to a Pale of Settlement in Palestine.
- The American Jewish Committee believes that the legal position of the Non-Zionists who helped form the Jewish Agency should be maintained, and that its memebrs should reassert themselves and not relinquish their rights to the Zionist members of that body,
- The American Jewish Committee is above all interested in the duties and rights of all Jews who are citizens of the United States of America, and to whom it is their Homeland. It will assist every effort to help them realize to the full, together with all of their fellow citizens, the proud privilege of being Americans. It will oppose every attempt to deny them the exercise of the inalienate right which every human being should enjoy and which every American citizen is guaranteed.
- The American Jewish Committee should increase the number and scope of its publications. It should seek to obtain control of an organization such as the Jewish Telegraphic Agency or establish one of its own, so that the news presented might be accurate, objective, and fair. An illustrated, well gotten up, more popular publication than the Contemporary Jewish Record, perhaps a weekly paper or magazine, should be published, and broadcast to as wide a reading public as possible. Life and accomplishment in America might stressed, although not solely featured.
- The American Jewish Committee should now carefully examine the number and nature of all American Jewish organizations, and take steps to influence more of them than it now does, and to preserve in some of them the influence it now enjoys.
— 1950s —
INSTITUTE OF HUMAN RELATIONS
333 CEDAR STREET
NEW HAVEN 11, CONNECTICUT
April 11, 1951
Dr. Nelson Glueck, President
The Hebrew Union College
Cincinnati 20, Ohio
Dear Dr. Glueck:
I was very glad to receive your letter of April 2nd together with the copy of the letter from Dr. Alex L. ter Braake. I am afraid that the gentleman is a bit naïve on the subject of brass and bronze. I quite agree with him that the “brazen sea” together with the other ornaments describe as brass in the Bible were probably bronze, but brass was known in ancient times. In fact the mysterious metal known as orichalcum was pretty certainly brass smelted from ores which contained a natural mixture of zinc and copper. There are also descriptions of the use of brass in classical times in Greece where it seems to have been regarded as an inferior type of gold, probably because of its bright yellow color. The odor is mentioned in these descriptions and also that wounds made by weapons of brass were poisoned.
As regards bronze, your friend ignored the fact that the term was used for a whole system of copper alloys, thus depending on the region, there are lead bronzes, antimons bronzes, arsenic bronzes, etc.
The making of bronze from metallic cooper and tin presents some special problems. The melting point of the two metals is very different and if you attempt to pour molten tin into molten copper, the tin vaporizes and much of the metal is lost. If the two metals are melted together, the tin melts first, and the copper becomes dissolved in it, much like a lump of sugar in coffee. However, with only 8-10% of the total mixture tin, I find it hard to see just how this works.
There are several points in connection with the smelting and metallurgy that I want to check with a competent metallurgist before I write up the article which we discussed, but I will hope tog et at it this coming week.
Mrs. Linton and I had a very pleasant time in Mexico and I have returned ready for work except for a nasty cold which I should shake in a few days. Let me say again how pleasant it was to make your acquaintance. I hope that our contacts will continue.
P.S. I assume that you are willing for me to keep the copy of the Alex L. ter Braake letter since it is a copy. I should like to refer to some of his questions.