EXPLORE BY YEAR
Shofe [Merturkel?] will have sent you a copy of our telegram about the [?]; and also a copy of our letter to him. Enclosed please find copies of both.
We are awaiting the reply with great interest.
You did us a great service and I want to thank you for it. Hope the whole thing turns out well.
The ____ of the type here is a good job, but not the ____
we want. The problem was, when to accept the Palestine [?] it and have the [?] 100% Palestine, but we had planned, as to get a better type and take advantage of the Philadelphia facilities, and give them our all-Palestine arbitrary. We decided in [?] and the latter, not [?] altogether early.
Once having decided that, we opened full [?] to be J.P.S. I am sure approve of that, and I am [?] that that is what they
also would want.
Your letter [?] 27 from Charleuoix came on Oct. 1. It was good to get the feeling you had after leaving with Helen and Charles from there again.
Please keep me informed of the [?] matter.
Sukenik got into sensational [?] about two with the [?]. He connected it with the crucifixion etc. I told him
My opinion about me [?] feeble cats, and I seek now that the is beginning to eat crow.
Enclosed is a copy of my pamphlet.
Conditions here are tense no matter what the publicity [?] on [?]
[?] term begins Oct 22.
We are all well. Much love to all of you.
Dear Helen and Nelson,
Nelson’s letter made us wish that we were neighbors again. Mrs. Warburg’s visit followed shortly after the letter came and she was able to tell us about both of you. We really missed you at the two picnics at Pardes Warburg and the Kind David Hotel treats. (We had caviare twice at Frieda’s table. As a matter of fact, both caviare and the King David are luxuries that we do not see often, unless Freida turns up). Disila came with her and as usual, wanted to stay in Palestine, but her parents did not agree, in spite of her persuasive cablegrams.
Judah and I had a bumpy winter. Judah took a month and a half off to have the operation for hernia which he had been postponing. He is perfectly well again. We were in Tel Aviv (at As. Danziger’s) when he was operated and went to the Dead Sea. There are small, neat bungalows and one eats at the Kallia restaurant: (of course the Kallia concession is now “in the hands of a German couple,” who know how to cook and keep things clean. I’ve heard of many places which have been taken over by Germans. As you can imagine, much German is spoken here. Helen could get all the German atmosphere and conversation she expected to get in Germany. David is working at Nathanya. He writes that the garden looks nice. I am expecting him today (the first visit in about a month) and as I am anticipating a suitcase full of fresh Nathanya vegetables, I have not ordered much for me. Jonathon and Rami are still at the Experiment Station as Rehovoth but they are threatening to leave, because they have no opportunity to begin work at their experiments in corn feeding – and still have to spend most of their time cleaning the cows and the stables. Benedict is seriously considering going to Newclark (?) in the late summer to buy for a Julliard music scholarship. David will get news of “the School” as he calls the American School of Oriental Studies. I […]
— 1930s —
THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY
March 1, 1932
Dear Dr. Glueck,
It is true, is it, that you are to be Director of the American School next year? We are all of us most happy, and we wish you and the School much joy and plenty of successful work. We look forward to seeing your wife. Are you rather happy or you were? Or happier?
With kind regards.
July 22, 1936
FOR SUBMISSION TO THE EXECUTIVE OF THE JEWISH AGENCY
Soon after the beginning of the Arab Strike of this year, it became evident that the disturbances would be prolonged and might result in Governmental measures detrimental to Zionist aims and interests. The undersigned met in order to exchange views on the situation and to see if a reasonable program of negotiations with influential members of the Arab community could be worked out, with a view to ending the present Strike through a truce and perhaps subsequently, to a lasting peace arrangement between the two races.
The undersigned have been lying in the country for a number of years. All of them have in different ways had close contact with leading members of the Arab Communities of Palestine, Transjordan, Egypt, Syria and Iraq. They have had many opportunities of hearing Arab views on the burning question of Jewish-Arab relationships. All of them have been in touch with Government officials whose views and feelings on the subject of Jewish-Arab relations they regard themselves as competent to interpret.
The exchange of views between the undersigned through verbal discussions and written memoranda, brought to light, that, although differing in details, they were united in fundamental points of approach as follows:-
1. The successful upbuilding of the Jewish National Home cannot be accomplished without coming to an agreement with the Arab Community of Palestine.
2. Even if this upbuilding, notwithstanding Arab opposition, were possible, with inevitable disturbances and riots, entailing loss of life, enormous loss of material values, frustration of many endeavors and the great loss of time necessary for recovery, Jewish colonization with Arab consent offers incomparably more advantages than this work in opposition to the Arab community.
3. Although there is more difficulty now than 10-15 years ago, during which time a new generation of nationally minded Arabs has grown up, in reaching an agreement with the Arabs has grown up, in reaching an agreement with the Arabs, the undersigned from their experiences with responsible Arab leaders before and during the present disturbances were convinced that even now it was possible to come to an understanding with influential leaders of the Arab movement, and these leaders in their turn would be prepared to use their endeavours to make this understanding acceptable to the majority to their Community.
4. All classes of the Arab Community without exception believe that, with the present rate of Jewish immigration, there will soon be a Jewish majority in Palestine with the Arabs a subject race. The undersigned were convinced that a basis for discussion with the Arabs could be found only if the question of the fixation of Jewish immigration over a limited period formed the central point of the discussion.
5. From recent private conversations of some of the undersigned with prominent Arabs, they became convinced, that the fixation of immigration at an average maximum of 30,000 Jewish immigrants per annum over a period of 10 years, resulting in a Jewish population of 800,000 at the end of the period or 40% of the total population of 2,000,000 could have formed the basis of discussion with Arab leaders with considerable hope of success. Although these figures had already had considerable Arab assent, the undersigned felt that once the two sides met, having agreed in advance on the principle of the fixation of Jewish immigration over a limited period, the number of Jewish immigrants and the period of the truce might well be the subject of further discussions.
6. The undersigned further believed, that an agreement on the main question – immigration, might have led to a peace settlement between the two Communities on such other outstanding questions as the regulation of land purchases, employment of labour and staff, and arrangements in the political field on the basis on the equality of both Nations.
From the outset the undersigned agreed that no steps be taken in furtherance of their views without the knowledge and consent of the Jewish Agency – the body authorized to deal with political affairs. Therefore, having coordinated their views on the fundamental points of a possible agreement with the Arab Community, the undersigned communicated the result of their information and deliberations to the members of the Jewish Agency responsible for conducting its political affairs and offered them their assistance, if desired.
A Memorandum embodying the agreed views of the undersigned was drawn up, consisting of two parts – 1) the substance of the proposals which might form the basis of discussion with Arabs and (2) the procedure to be followed
Following conversations which Mr. Frumkin and Mr. P Rutenberg each had privately with Mr. Shertok on the subject, both of them together, on behalf of the undersigned, had on 29th May in Tel-Aviv a joint conference with Mr. Shertok and one of the leaders of the Histadruth, who are informed of the undersigneds’ proposals and their desire to have a formal meeting with members of the Jewish Agency in order to place these proposals before them.
On Monday, the 1st of June, this meeting took place. These were present on behalf of the Jewish Agency:- Messrs. Kaplan (in the chair), Shertok, Ussishkin, B. Joseph and Berl Katznelson; on behalf of the group-Messrs. Frumpkin, Magnes, Novemeysky, P. Rutenberg and M. Smilansky.
A memorandum was submitted and discussed. Copies of this memorandum are attached hereto. In regard to its second part – procedure for arranging a conference with Arab leaders, the undersigned explained why they thought it preferable that preliminary stages should be conducted through unofficial channels. It was, however, emphasized that the procedure to the followed was a matter to be decided by the Jewish Agency, the chief interest of the undersigned being in the substance of the proposals.
The representatives of the Jewish Agency decided to call a meeting of its Executive and undertook to inform the undersigned through one of its members of the decision taken.
A few days later Mr. Shertok informed one of the undersigned, that the Executive had decided unanimously in favour of negotiation with the Arabs, that the question of the possibility of waiving under certain carefully thought out circumstances the right to utilize the immigration certificates already issued could not be discussed, being entirely inacceptable, and that on the question of the fixation of immigration, the views of the members of the Executive were equally divided and the opinions of the members at present in London – Dr. Weizmann and Mr. Ben-Gurion were to be sought by cable and telephone and that the undersigned would be informed of the results in a few days. Mr. Shertok was urged to give a speedy reply, as the disturbances were developing and deepening and the opportunities which seemed to be favourable at the moment might not be available as time passed.
On the 8th of June another meeting took place between Mr. Shertok and Messrs. Rutenberg and Novomeysky at the Hotel Gat-Rimon in Tel-Aviv. Mr. Shertok was again urged to act in the matter of negotiations with all possible speed, to start negotiations themselves on their own, if they did not want to agree to the proposals of the undersigned.
On the 16th June a meeting took place between representatives of the Jewish Agency, Messrs. Shertok and Kaplan, and Mr. Novomeysky, representing the undersigned. Mr. Novomeysky was informed that a majority of the Executive of the Jewish Agency was now in favour of fixation of immigration over a limited period, but that the annual figure which they would be willing to consider was that of 1935, namely, 62,000. As to the procedure, the Executive was against the proposal to empower the undersigned to start unofficial negotiations with Arab leaders. The Political
Department of the Agency was the only body to conduct negotiations, and this Department would be glad to receive any useful information from private persons.
On the 20th June Messrs. Rutenberg and Novomeysky had a meeting with Mr. Ussishkin to clarify the situation. Mr. Ussishkin to clarify the situation. Mr. Ussishkin undertook to arrange for another meeting of the Agency’s Executive.
On the 24th June at the invitation of Mr. Ussishkin a meeting took place at his home, at which Mr. Kaplan and Mr. Shertok of the Jewish Agency and Mr. Novomeysky representing the undersigned were present. Mr. Ussishkin summarized the decision of the Executive in regard to the proposals of the undersigned, as follows:-
(1) The Executive welcomes these proposals of assistance in negotiations with Arab leaders.
(2) The proposals in regard to the fixation of immigration is accepted, but it should be formulated so that the absorptive capacity of the country remains the main basis for the calculation of immigration figures. On this basis the figure of 1935, namely, 62,000 should be accepted for a limited period of 10 years.
(3) The possibility of a waiver of the right to utilize certificates already granted should not be raised.
(4) The undersigned may meet those Arab leaders with whom they have been in contact, but they should remain in close touch with the Executive, mutually exchanging information and discussing steps to be taken.
Mr. Novomeysky, although expressing doubts, in view of the great change the Arab Strike Movement had undergone sine the undersigned had first discussed the question with the Executive and in view of the fact that certain Arab leaders were absent either from Jerusalem or the country, nevertheless expressed his satisfaction with Mr. Ussishkin’s proposals and asked to be informed of the actual procedure to be followed and the next step to be taken.
Mr. Shertok stated, though he was unable to give a definite reply immediately or even the following day, but he expected to be able to do so in two or three days, after he had consulted some of his friends.
Four weeks have now passed since that meeting. The Chairman of the Agency Executive, Mr. Ben-Gurion, has in the meantime returned to the country and left again for England and the undersigned have received no communication from members of the Agency.
The undersigned wish to put on record their deep regret and concern over the attitude of the Executive. Another eleventh hour opportunity has thus been lost for initiating a course for the undisturbed building up of the Jewish National Home.
Signed: G. Frumkin; J. L. Magnes; M. Novomeyksy; F. Rutenberg; M. Smilansky
I. THE AGREEMENT.
1) A period of from 5 to 10 years.
2) The Agreement is to be made at once and without the intervention of Government, but with its ultimate approval.
3) The Agreement to cover both the economic and the political aspects of the question at issue.
4) No free entrance into the country of Arab workmen from other countries.
5) Jewish Labour Immigration in accordance with the absorptive capacity of the country, but on condition that in new openings for labour created by Jews a proportion to be allotted to Atabs.
6) No change in reference to Capitalist immigration or relatives.
7) Jews to be employed on Government undertakings not less than their numerical strength.
8) Among other factors in determining capacity, the number of unemployed taken half-yearly should be an index, only wage-earners to be counted and not agricultural labourers or Bedoui.
9) In case the above is insufficient to secure agreement, a temporary fixation of immigration over 5 to 10 years to be conceded, provided that at the end of the period the Jewish population may reach approximately 40% of the total population.
1) No acquisition, except on the principle that an Arab cultivating the land as owners or tenant should not be displaced without his consent, or that land of equivalent value in the same neighbourhood or any other place with his consent be placed at his disposal for development.
2) Only a given proportion (75%) of land, owned and cultivated by fellah is to be sold by him and a lot visible is to remain to him in inalienable possession and the necessary financial and scientific aid is to be given him for the development of his land by Government, with possible Jewish participants
3) If land cultivated by tenants is sold, portion of it or some other land to be allotted to them, and they to be helped to acquire and develop this land by Government, with possible Jewish participation
13) A Legislative Council upon the basis of parity, thus showing that neither people is to dominate the other.
14) The principle is adopted of increased Jewish and Arab participation in Government administration as Heads of Departments and as members of the Government Executive. As a beginning, a Jew and an Arab as Heads respectively of two Government Departments and a Jew and an Arab as members of the Executive Council.
V. STAGES OF THE NEGOTIATIONS
1) The Executive of the Jewish Agency is to authorize the unofficial Committee consisting of five persons which may coopt any other person by mutual agreement with the Executive of the Jewish Agency to canvass with unofficial Arabs the possibility of coming to an understanding on the main points of Immigration, Land and Legislative Council.
2) Should those private talks indicate that there is the possibility of agreement on the main points, the above mentioned unofficial Committee shall with the consent of the Executive of the Jewish Agency come together with a similar unofficial Committee of Arabs for the purpose of preparing a text for submission to both Jewish and Arab official bodies respectively.
3) The Executive of the Jewish Agency and the Arab Supreme Committee are to consider this text and to inform the unofficial Committee of their attitude.
4) Should an agreement be reached on the main points – Immigration, Land, Legislative Council – the Executive of the Jewish Agency and the Arab Supreme committee are then to meet and to issue an announcement something like the followings-
“The Executive of the Jewish Agency and the Arab Supreme Committee have decided to enter into formal negotiations and during the progress of these negotiations the strike is to be called off by the Arab Supreme Committee as from June…and the Jewish Agency is to postpone the carrying out of the new labour schedule.”
“The formal and official negotiations between these two bodies will begin on…
(Although the figures on this page were worked out in 1938, they will give an idea of what was in mind when an agreement for 10 years was spoken of, permitting the Jews at the end of that time to constitute 40% of the population.)
The Arab population in 1948 will be about 1,240,000 (see graph on page 281 of Royal Commission Report).
If the Jewish population is then 40% of the total population it will be 2/3rds (i.e. 40/60) of the Arab population, or about 825,000.
That requires an average annual immigration from 1938 of about 29,000 a year. At that rate of immigration and with the existing rates of natural increase of Jews and Arabs, the populations will be as follows approximately after 1940:-
Year Total Arabs Total Jews Total population
1940 1,040,000 480,000 1,520,000
1941 1,065,000 520,000 1,585,000
1942 1,090,000 560,000 1,650,000
1943 1,115,000 600,000 1,715,000
1944 1,140,000 650,000 1,790,000
1945 1,165,000 690,000 1,855,000
1946 1,190,000 735,000 1,925,000
1947 1,215,000 780,000 1,995,000
1948 1,240,000 825,000 2,065,000
— 1940s —
THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY
March 10, 1940
[?] day he two Frontmen were killed. I agreed not to go to Alcabra.
I had been looking forward to being here and seeing that you were doing and taking a few lectures of the neighborhood.
May be we shall be going to Nahaura for a few days.
Dr. Hass, of the Zoology Department, will probably accompany Dr. Kandell. He is an enthusiast in the field, on a brief truth to Alcabra a few years
He picked up 10 hitherto [?]
Imatau and Haus will be moving to her new home in a few days.
Things are quiet here now. No government [?] no funds question her will probably remain so far a [?] time. King Solomon seemed to do it better, although he was an offense, wasn’t he?
Keep well and continue to enjoy yourself.
THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY
January 24, 1941
Your letter of October 9 by ordinary post arrived here a few days ago. You can well imagine that we were exceedingly glad to hear from you and to have all of your news about Helen and the baby. The picture of you and him under one of those great Cincinnati trees was a treat to see. You say that you wrote several letters en route and that you would be curious to know if they were received. Two of them were. Coming up on the bus this morning Dr. Meisler asked if nothing had been heard from you. He also had received a letter and both of us shook our heads in sympathy with your Yehuds Halevy predicament that your body is in the West and your heart in Jerusalem.
The Rosenbloom Building at the University is almost finished. It is being used and among others by the School of Oriental Studies, and they seem to be quite content with their new bright surroundings. The Archaeology Building is in process o being completed.
The Prehistoric Centre has not yet been established as we have been awaiting word from Miss Garrod, particularly in reference to 180 pounds which the Palestine Exploration Fund had, you may remember, for the pre-historic survey. Meanwhile, although Stekelis is receiving a small salary, he is not, as you can well understand, particularly happy over his uncertain position. I am wondering if nothing at all can be done to get the American Schools to become a member, even at a very small sum annually, of the new Centre when it is established. The moral support of the American Schools’ name would probably bring the Egyptian School into line.
You will be interested to know that Professor Petrie got malaria on a trip somewhere or other a couple of months ago. Lady Petrie promised to let me know when one may get to see him, but thus far I have not heard from her.
Many of the American refugees from Egypt have left the School in view of the improved situation in Egypt. The improvement there has also brought about an easing of the tension here, at least for the moment.
You probably know that further portion of the Third Wall were found extending in the direction of the Kidron and then making a turn to the right. I have not seen the point at which the turn takes place so that I cannot describe it to you in detail.
I was greatly interested in the very scanty announcement I have come across concerning the conference in New York of scientists, philosophers and theologians. I am anxious to get ahold of the proceedings and I shall be writing to Dr. Finkelstein of the Seminary who was, so I believe, the prime mover. Only yesterday I saw a bitter reply from Sidney Hook published in the New Republic in reference to the paper by Mortimer Adler who seems to have taken a Cudgel on behalf of the theology position. It is rather difficult to get at what Adler had in mind from the response by Hook. The latter is a very keen man but I suppose as far removed from any inclinations towards theology as all of the new-marxists.
We are wondering here whom the College is to choose in place of Diesendruck and Mann.
Love to Helen
July 22, 1941
David and Norah are going in to Jerusalem today to stay a town place for two weeks while we stay here. It is increasingly pleasant here, more [?] green, almost always a breeze, a new road to be found, and the sea always at the bottom of the steps.
I am giving them a telegram to be sent you because of Fisher’s death. It must have been very [?]. we were at the American church on July 4 after a tea in the Biblique Jordan. I was in the next to be last new
he in the last, and as we went out together and in answer to my question how he was, he said: Oh. I am afraid I am getting sad. – I thought him looking well, but maybe that was because of his dark suit he had put on for going to church.
I also told him how glad I was that he was [?] in some of Steckelin’s work. He had devoted a little money to some of hits, that Steckelin told me that funds was most anxious to get to work at some of the
Material Steckelin had been uncovering in prehistoric caves. There is one cave with all the appearance of the sensationed – state titles and all be next – plus valuable evidence of very early human life. – Professor [?] was to have spoken to Furst about the probability I connect in Steckelin in some way with the Amer. School. I do not know if he had the chance. The rear on for this was that after we had had all flaws ready to be establishment of the pre-historic center, with their
Commission connecting to the Patron. The Director of the Dept of Antiquities objected to having something new started. “It would be better to have him attached to some existing institution.” Sure. But if “ “ “ does not attach him? As you may know, the Dept of Antiquities gives Steckelin [?] Petrie, who is still in bed, [?] feeble, but mentally an alert as ever want to do something together with Steckelin, and “[?]”, but somehow they continue under the wand of the Egyptian Goddess. – Preferably under the circumstance at may be timely and appropriate for me to make
the following proposal: a) That the American School affront Steckelin as Clarance Fisher returns (or some of title) in Prehistorics, and this in recognition of Fisher’s deep interest in this field and of the fact that paint work with with Steckelin in the field was probably his best piece of activity. He had promised himself important pottery results. c) that the endeavors be made to [?] others with his work. I can guarantee LP 200 a year for the next two years. And I shall make a [?] effort to try something loose from to Petrie [?]. c) That, if the Brand of the Schools wishes, a
small Committee be set of for Pre-historic consents of representations of the Dept of Antiquities, the Egyptian School. The Hebrew University, or some other network, or no [?] – would this not fine be American School as important war time activists? Archaeologists from around well hardly becoming here now. As good now as well as only one here, Pal and T.J. are full of prehistoric material. Finally Steckelin is a front clan man; here is now better; and he is a clean and modest character.
When you get this letter will you please write me? Thank you for whatever you do. – I [?] you almost [?]. Here is not a great historian – where are they? But he is a sound scholar. — [?] an independent man be now. – We are all well. Love to them.
THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY
August 11, 1941
Dr. Nelson Glueck
Hebrew Union College
You will be interested to know that Dr. Stekelis and I visited Sir Flinders and Lady Petrie a couple of days ago and that they have agreed to give 60 pounds in order that Stekelis may be able to finish the excavations near Athlit which he had begun in cooperation with Professor Fisher.
Now that they have finally decided to interest themselves in this they seem very happy. Sir Flinders and Dr. Stekelis had quite a conversation about drawings and photographs to the proper scale, the payment of bakshish for important finds (as you know prehistory does not furnish any gold), and, most important of all, publication. They are ready to publish the findings in their series.
Lady Petrie phoned me last night saying that Sir Flinders had been so keen about the conversation that he felt quite tired afterwards. It was really remarkable to see how alert he was, particularly through his fingers, because it is sometimes difficult for him to see small things. She told me also that he was most keen that Stekelis continue excavating in the Jordan Valley when he finishes the work at Athlit in about three months’ time.
I am sending you a copy of a letter to Mr. Sigmund Sabshin, Financial Secretary of the Buffalo, N. Y. Zionist Organization, for your information and also for any action that you think might be desirable.
Let me say, lest my last letter to you may have lead to misapprehensions, that the Department of Antiquities is also very keen on Stekelis’ work. As you know they have placed a room at his disposal, and in connection with the work near Athlit they have also let him use a cottage at Athlit, etc.
Will all of this not encourage to Brand of the American Schools to take the step that I suggested in my last letter, namely to appoint Stekelis as lecturer or research fellow or whatever else you may want to call it, at the American School? I mentioned this suggestion to Mr. Hamilton who was quite enthusiastic about it.
Thus far Stekelis has been getting his salary through me – the enormous sum of LP. 15 a month. If the American School were to appoint him it should, so I think, contribute his salary which it might feel in a position to raise a bit. Other funds would be used for working budgets. Or perhaps the American School might want to make a different arrangement?
We are all going strong. We fund Jerusalem delightful as usual during the summer. The place is crowded. You should see our granddaughter. She is nicer than all of our boys put together. Moral: Gratful. Love to Helen and Jonathon.
Account Abraham Freed, September, 1943 – August, 1944
From Dr. Nelson Glueck Jaffa Hospital Sept. 43 & expenses 16.250
February, 1944 Jaffa Hospital Oct. 43 & expenses 16.400
“ “ Jaffa Hospital Nov. 43 & expenses 17.100
“ “ Jaffa Hospital Dec. 43 & expenses 17.350
March, 16, 1944 LP. 119 Jaffa Hospital Jan. 43 & expenses 18.750
51 Jaffa Hospital Feb. 43 & ** 21.300
**hospitalization & special treatment at Hadassah, Te. Aviv
Balance to the credit of Dr. Magnes………………………………………..LP. 11.650
March – 17.300
April – 17.200
May – 16.750
June – 17.150
July – 18.050
August – 17.400
You will have received my wire saying that I had funds for Freed through September of this year. I am instructing my secretary, Mrs. Pomerantz, to give you a check for L.P. 68, (sixty-eight), to cover the costs for Freed for the four months of June, July, August and September of 1944 at the rate of L.P. 17 per month. I am confident that funds will be forthcoming after that also.
I had a pleasant trip home, particularly in comparison with the trip going over last January. Were it not for occasional dropping of depth charges and airplane alarms, it hardly would have bene possible to know that we were traveling the Mediterranean in war time. I kept very busy and ship revising the manuscript of my book, “The Jordan”. I also wrote an article with that title for the National Geographic, which, in reality, is a précis of the book. You will be pleased to hear that the article was accepted immediately after the editors of the Geographic read it. They tell me that they hope to publish it in the December issue. Just when and by whom the book proper will be published has not yet been determined.
I did not surprise Helen this time, but wired her first and phoned her the night after I landed and came on home the next day from Washington. I needn’t tell you how grand it was to be met by her and Charles Jonathon at the station. The boy has grown considerably during the seven months I had been away, but he knew me this time immediately. Helen looks well and is working very hard and very successfully. Mrs. Iglauer is as wonderful as ever, but naturally is greatly saddened by the death of her husband. He was really a great man and I miss him terribly. Late at night when I have been home previously I used to go down stairs about midnight and we would invariably repair to the kitchen for a snack and a discussion. He had one of the most verile minds that I know of. He died a young man.
I haven’t been to New York as yet and as a result have seen no one so far. Here, in Cincinnati, I have been simply luxuriating in the sense of being home, and it is with the greatest reluctance that I go out of the house at all. I love to be home when the boy comes home and don’t mind at all when he plays in my room when I am working. Helen and I are planning to go to New York, however, the week after next and then we shall have an opportunity to see a lot of our mutual friends.
I have been to Washington several times and will probably be going there again fairly frequently during the next couple of months. The atmosphere of some of my friends there is rather cool.
I had a long talk with Dr. Morgenstern about the Hebrew Union College. He hasn’t changed in any respect. I don’t know why it is, but after I have been away from home for some time, I almost invariably return and expect to see people and situations through the same softening haze that distances provides. It is always something of a shock to realize that they haven’t changed at all. There was talk of my eventual successorship to the office, “after I had gained more administrative experience”. The upshot so far as my feelings are concerned was and is if I could take Helen and the boy with me, I would immediately take the next boat back to Palestine. As it is, I shall hope to come back sometime during this academic year and finish out my period of directorship at the school, between returning finally and attempting to take a hand at the cleaning of the Aegean stables. I guess as long as I live there will always be this conflicting within me between my love for my work in Palestine and of Palestine itself and between duty and obligations at home and the unwillingness to be separated from Helen and Charles.
I was greatly disturbed to hear of the attempt on the life of Sir Harold and hope that no permanent injury has been done him. I have seen nothing in the news papers with regard to his welfare since then. I imagine that Lord Gort will have been installed in his office by the time this letter arrives. I pray that under his administration productive peace may prevail in Palestine.
I hope you had a successful trip to Turkey. I shall see Harry Viteles in New York I am sure and will hope to hear about some details about him.
With love to you and Beatrice and the children in which Helen joins me, and with best wishes for the New Year, I remain as ever
Your telegram of August 19. VIII. came of 22. VIII. and we were very glad to get this sign of life from you in Cincinnati. I wonder if you have written us something of the joy and of the scenes of your home coming. That would interest us immensely, as you know. Doubtless you found Charles Jonathon a big boy, and I know how eager you and Helen are not to be separated again. If I had anything to say I would repeat what I have said several times: Stay where you are, write the half dozen books which you have in mind and in hand and become the President of the Hebrew Union College when Morgie really feels that it is time for him to let go.
Many thanks for the news about money for Freed. We are now approaching the end of September and I am glad to know that more money will be forthcoming. I had a kind and encouraging letter from Gup who said that the Conference looked upon Freed as a charge upon them, and in this they are doing a brotherly thing.
You will find enclosed a statement of the account as it stands today. You will see that there is owning me the sum of LP. 41.200.
Moreover, for a long time, years now, I have felt extremely uncomfortable over the debt owing by Freed to Mr. Gershon Rothstein, 42, Zihron Moshe Road, Jerusalem. Over and over again. When Freed went out of his head, the Rothstein family harboured him and protected him and treated him like one of their family. When his mother was able to send him money he used to pay them at a low rate for food and lodging. But when his life grew even more complicated than it had been he finally escaped through the window one night in his pyjamas, came to my house and then went heaven knows where until it was finally determined that the care of the Rothstein family could not longer be made use of. At that time he was indebted to them in the sum of LP. 47.400. I thought that if ever we secured the insurance money left to Freed by his mother we would use part of it in payment of this debt. Could anything be done to meet this debt without waiting for the insurance money? Mr. Rothstein is a printer, their income is modest, and the recovery of this debt would mean very much to them.
We miss you. I know how much you will want to be here again. But this only for a limited [?] a year and on condition that Helen comes with [?] at least every other time. – I was in Turkey for two weeks in correction wrote [?]. I flew and it was fine. – Beatrice and I were in [?] for two weeks. – our tenure have few before a week in November. I was much materializes in an article by Samuel.
Sept. 15, 1945
I returned yesterday from Philadelphia. I spent only four hours in New York talking to Dr. Millar Burrows, President of the American Schools of Oriental Research, and then got on a train, five minutes after we finished talking, and went to Philadelphia. In fact, Burrows accompanied me to the station. This is in order to explain that I had no time in New York during this very brief visit even to phone Ben. I am writing to him by this same mail, and will surely see him in the near future.
Finkel’s cable to you of September 12 covers the American type-founders Co. situation, and also summarized my reactions concerning the possibility of cooperation on the part of the JPS with the HU in connection with the preparing of the master matrices by the JPS of the text of the Hebrew University Bible. I believe the copy of the discussion which Maurice Jacobs and Dr. Solomon Grayzel of the JPS on one side and I on the other, acting unofficially for you, had, paves the way for publishing the Hebrew University Bible with full consideration for the rights of the Hebrew University and for its expenses entailed thus far in preparing the new font and for preparing and completing the scientific text.
I found that the Jewish Publication Society was fully prepared to go ahead and publish their own Hebrew-English Bible, and have, I believe, persuaded them to delay that project until you accept or reject the memorandum which Finkel has already sent you, and another copy of which I am enclosing.
They are now prepared to cut the letters for your new font, and set up the Hebrew text which you will furnish them in the width you desire, furnish you master matrices, and do all of that without a penny of further expense to you. We mutually agreed that it would be impossible to figure out in dollars and cents the value of your contributions in Jerusalem and the cost of their producing the master matrices in Philadelphia, and decided to call it a mutual lend-lease affair, and call it even. The Hebrew University would only have to pay for the manufacture of electro plates from the master plates, which latter you would keep and not use, as is explained in the enclosed memorandum.
In return, the Jewish Publication Society would use the Hebrew text and the same letters of the Hebrew University Bible, only breaking up the text and resetting it to serve the purposes of their Hebrew English Bible, in which the Hebrew will be printed in a narrower column than on your page.
It seems to me, that there is only one possible objection which you might raise to the procedure suggested in this memorandum, and that is that the Hebrew University may not want anybody, including the Jewish Publication Society, to make any use whatsoever of the new Hebrew University font. I have not discussed this point with Mr. Maurice Jacobs, executive head of the JPS, but I am certain that in that case the JPS would agree to prepare the master matrices for the Hebrew University at the complete cost for them to the Hebrew University, but on the other hand would immediately go ahead and publish their own Hebrew-English Bible with their own font. It seems to me that the market for the Hebrew University Bible in America will be lessened if the JPS puts out a new Hebrew-English Bible with its own font in the immediate future, and conversely that the market for your Bible in America will be greatly increased if the JPS Hebrew-English Bible appears with the same font as the Hebrew University Bible, giving full credit on its title page for that font, and appearing at the very earliest simultaneously with the Hebrew University Bible, and possibly later.
In a word, I can see every possible advantage for the outlined cooperation of the Hebrew University with the Jewish Publication Society, and every possible disadvantage if the Hebrew University decides to go its own way and the Jewish Publication Society therefore is constrained to complete its independent plans and set in motion the machinery for the publication of its own Hebrew-English Bible.
The Jewish Publication Society says, however, that if its text, to be published in a smaller width than the Hebrew University text, (assuming now that agreement has been established between the two institutions as to the use of the same font and same text) is to be that of the Hebrew University, then it must allow its Board of Editors to have a chance to pass upon the text as prepared by Cassuto and his colleagues. The JPS are not interested primarily or at all in passing upon the critical notes that Cassuto and colleagues are preparing, because even if they use such notes, they will append them to the end of their Bible and incorporate changes or effect deletions in the notes, always with due credit or responsibility being clearly noted, and will not put their critical notes on the bottom of their page as is the case in the Kittel Bible, and as I assume will be the case in the Hebrew University Bible. However, they must satisfy themselves that the text proper as prepared by Cassuto and colleagues satisfies their own standards. I consider that an eminently fair request. Even therefore if you approve of the enclosed memorandum, and in general the JPS board approves of it at their meeting on Nov. 4, 1945, it will still be necessary for the Hebrew University to send to the Jewish Publication Society immediately one or preferably two chapters of the text of the Bible, preferably of one of the first five books, so that they can see what the actual text with all the vowels and accents, etc., in place looks like.
I must say that I found the attitude of Mr. Jacobs and of Dr. Grayzel to be one of the most friendly possible cooperation, based on the base of good will for the Hebrew University, and to my way of thinking, the memorandum enclosed obtains highly satisfactory results for the Hebrew University and to my way of thinking, the memorandum enclosed obtains highly satisfactory results for the Hebrew University. I was greatly impressed with the forthrightness and uprightness of both men. Mr. Solis-Cohn was out of town, but in any event Mr. Maurice Jacobs is the Executive Director of the JPS, and it is with him that I would have to deal.
I shall write in another letter about personal affairs.
With love to you and Beatrice and the children in which Helen joins me, as ever,
AMERICAN FRIENDS OF THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY
October 15, 1945
Dr. Nelson Glueck
162 Glenmary Avenue
Cincinnati 20, Ohio
Dear Dr. Glueck,
It is a fortuitous circumstance that Jacobs happens to be in Cincinnati at this time, thus giving him and you an opportunity to discuss the matter of the Magnes cable.
With kind regards, I am
Samuel B. Finkel
Nov. 20, 1945
Dr. Judah L. Magnes
I have your letters and enclosures of Nov. 17 and 24, as well as the earlier one of August 19.
I feel that the Bible will be put into press as soon as possible, after an achievable, clear understanding has been reached between the HU and the JPS, and after sufficient personnel will have returned to the JPS to enable the mechanics of the necessary operations to be properly conducted. Long before then, the complete text of the Bible ought to have been transmitted to America.
It is not, as I see it on the part of the JPS, an attempt by them to set themselves up as judges of Prof. Cassuto’s scientific qualifications, but rather that the JPS feels it proper actually to see what it is going in on, and to feel assured that the text is in accordance with the standards one might expect from Cassuto and the Hebrew University.
Mr. Jacobs has replied seriatim to all the paragraphs of your letter of October 11, 1945, and since then has elaborated the position of the JPS in his letter of November 15, 1945 to Mr. Finkel. In Mr. Jacob’s letter to me of Nov. 9, a copy of which I am enclosing, he referred to the cost of “the designing of the type” by the JPS. In reply to my query on that point, he replied that he meant “that the Lanston Monotype Co. has to spend money to take the materials sent to us by the HU and make their designs preparatory to the cutting of the matrices, etc.”
The important point to remember with regard to the question on of the joint ownership of the Hebrew matrices, which the JPS considers as its own when made, is that the JPS has agreed, according to its letter of Nov. 15, 1945, p. 2, 1st par. to “furnish the University with one set of master plates”, with the further qualification, however, that “all additional electros will have to be paid for by the University.” In addition, in the memorandum of my meeting with Mr. Jacobs and Dr. Grayzel on September 11, 1945, the JPS agreed that “the HU will have the right to purchase matrices from the Lanston Monotype Machine Co. at the reduced cost any time it sees fit to do so for its own use.”
The exact use to which the font furnished by the HU can be devoted has been detailed in that memorandum.
In essence, as I see the entire pictures now, the JPS basically is agreeing to furnish the HU a master matrix of the Bible set up with the HU font and using the text as worked out by Prof. Cassuto and his colleagues (this last matter still requires their final approval), and ever thing else that it is agreeing to do or not to do is secondary to that. This matrix or set of master plates, is being furnished by the JPS to the HU without any charge.
In return, a) the JPS is desisting from putting out a critical Hebrew Bible of its own, using one of its many fonts; b) is getting the basic mechanical work done of preparing the master plates for the jointly used new Hebrew text of the Bible. I deem it a fair bargain, and the only way guaranteeing the publication of the HU bible in the reasonably near future.
I am sending this letter to Mr. Samuel Finkel for transmission to you, and so that he may have copies of it made for his own information and for one to be sent to Mr. Maurice Jacobs.
I shall be writing to you with regard to personnel matters in a day or so.
P.S. The master plates which will be furnished by the JPS to the HU should actually be put into a safe and not used at all, but the printing should be done from additional electros, for which the HU will have to pay.
November 22 ,1945
162 GLENMARY AVE CINCINNATI (OHIO)
SHOCKED GRIEVED CONFERENCE DECISION FREED HAVE YOU SUGGESTIONS STOP WHEN WILL PUBLICATION SOCIETY ANSWER =
November 28, 1945
162 GLENMARY AVE
TRYING RAISE 15000 DOLLARS ESTABLISHMENT OFFICE FOR PREPARING MATERIAL FOR INQUIRY COMMITTEE LOOKING TOWARDS JEWISH ARAB UNDERSTANDING CAN YOU APPROACH FRIENDS TO HELP =
I cabled you $3000 a couple of days ago, in answer, at Slawson’s request, to your letter to him of December 9. I obtained it five minutes after I got into the office of the American Jewish Committee in New York.
I have been enormously distressed over the developments in Palestine since I left. If anything, they have increased by terrific longing to get back there as soon as possible. When it seemed fairly certain that Gruner was to be hung and martial law imposed at Proskauer’s insistence I flew to Washington and spent almost two hours with the chap that you had a long interview with there. He is really a top flight personality and I enjoyed meeting him more than I can possibly say. He listened with absorbed interest, asked several searching questions, and after I was finished said some very nice things which I felt were more than courtesy demanded about what I’d had to say and how I said it. He said he agreed completely with my general position, which is yours, and with my criticisms which extended themselves to several quarters.
Sir Leon and Lady Simon were here at Cincinnati and my family did a large part in raising the sum of money that was raised. Dr. Julian Benjamin, who headed the committee, did about as inept a job as can be managed and left town in the middle of the work. Mrs. Ignlauer, and Helen worked heroically to step into the breach. Less than half of the quota of 40,000 was raised.
I made a valiant effort to see Benedict and Frances in New York two weeks ago but it seemed impossible for us to get together. I talked for some time to Benedict over the telephone and learned that he had accepted the position with Finkelstein. I am sure that he will do well. I found that it was well known in both New York and Cincinnati that Finkelstein was contemplating this step. I am delighted that Benedict and Frances will be able now to stay together and I am sure that there would be not only one Institute of the kind that Finkelstein is planning but there is room for many of them throughout the country.
With regard to myself, the pressure upon me to accept the presidency has been unremitting. I have said that I would accede to the request with the understanding that a basic condition was the merger of HUC and the Jewish Institute of Religion and with activities carried on in both New York and Cincinnati.
Aside from all other matters, it is obvious that Helen and Charles Jonathon and I must remain together. I can sense that the boy is, so to speak, really drinking me in, as indeed I am drinking him in. As for Helen, as I believe I said to you previously, it is wonderful to be married to a continuously growing personality.
I have the copies of your letters with regard to Freed. You will let me know, please, if there is anything that you want to do with regard to his insurance policy in New York.
Please tell me in as great a detail as you can find time for what you feel should be done from this point on with regard to Palestine.
Will you please see to it that I get the Baayoth hay-Yom sent to me here?
I am proud of Johnnie. I was interested in your reply to Issernan with regard to coming here next year. It would be wonderful if you could.
With love to you and Beatrice, in which Helen joins me,
As ever, yours
November 3, 1946
Dr. Judah L. Magnes
I am enclosing a cheque made out to you for the equivalent in pounds of $2000, for the purposes we have discussed. I shall appreciate it in due course you would let me have a statement as to how the sum was expended, so that I can relay it to our friends in America.
November 17, 1946
Dr. Judah L. Magnes
Would you please be good enough to sign the enclosed receipts for the $2000 for Ihud. The auditor refuses to audit our books unless we have a receipt for every cheque issued.
January 15, 1947
Mr. Maurice Wertheim
New York, N.Y.
I would ask you to be good enough to act as my proxy at the meeting of the Board of Governors of the Hebrew University, which is to take place in New York on March the 17th.
Sir L. Simon has undertaken the formidable task of leading the University at this critical juncture. This requires the complete devotion of a man with exceptional intellectual and spiritual qualities, and I am convinced that Sir L. Simon is such a man. He is an enthusiastic Jew, a cultured scholar, an experienced administrator and a clean character.
I had excepted to have the privilege of giving him active help. My disappointment was therefore the greater when, in a commendably open and friendly way, he expressed his apprehension lest my proffered help might perhaps interfere with him. He could not believe that a man, who had at one time had such wide powers as I have had in the upbuilding of the University, could content himself with a modest role. He seemed to feel that my presence might “cramp his style”. His attitude must be respected. It is decisive as far as my attendance at the meeting is concerned. I would not want by my presence to arouse any controversy.
After the meeting of the Board of Governors in 1939, I felt that, under the then prevailing circumstances, my usefulness as President had about come to an end, and I had expected to withdraw. But, with the outbreak of the war, I and others thought that the time for this was inopportune and, after consultation with the Senate, I decided to remain. I received a letter from the Senate then, which I cherish greatly. I have been told often that my presence at the University in the critical times of the war was a genuine moral support, aside from my specific services I may have been able to render.
The war is happily behind us, and under the circumstances I must leave to the meeting of the Board to decide, if and in what way I am to be privileged to continue to serve the University in an official capacity.
The draft of a Constitution is to be laid before the meeting. If it is thought that I should continue in an official capacity, the term Chancellor might be substituted for that of President, and the office of Chancellor be defined substantially as it is in the Constitution of English Universities, that of formal or titular head of the University, who takes precedence on ceremonial occasions, who distributes diplomas, and who performs such other functions, as may be requested of him and as he may be willing to undertake.
If the term Chancellor seems to create difficulties for whatever reason, the term President Emeritus might be substituted, although this latter would seem to indicate that I am in the doddering stage, and this, I am glad to say, is not yet the fact. In any event, I should not want a position created just for me. The only condition, under which it would be acceptable to me, is that the position be one which the Board regards as useful for the University.
It may not be amiss to say that I shall, whether in office or not, try serve more particularly the Institute of Jewish Studies and the School of Oriental Studies, both of which I regard as of fundamental importance to the Hebrew University and both of which, along with other departments of the University, I helped to establish; and I shall also continue as Chairman of the Hebrew University Press Association.
I shall also continue to help the Medical Centre.
I would ask you kindly to bring this letter to the attention of those interested, as also to the attention of the meeting of the Board of Governors.
With many thanks to you for your readiness to serve as my proxy, and with all good wishes for a fruitful meeting.
J. L. Magnes
I am taking the liberty of addressing a message to you for the Convention of the Jewish Labour Committee.
The fat of Palestine is now in the balance, and I would urge you most earnestly to prevail upon the Jewish Labour Committee to clarify its stand and to bring the full weight of its influence to bear upon the decision which are soon to be made.
I think the history and make up of your Committee justify the assumption that you are more inclined to the idea of an integral, undivided Bi-national Palestine than to any other solution. I would therefore urge you not to yield to the defeatism of the Partition solution, which is, in large measure, the off-spring of the despair and weariness of those who say, the Jews and the Arabs can not live together. Jews and Arabs do live and work together today, and if they be given a chance through the adoption of a moderate and feasible policy they will cooperate increasingly in all walks of life.
It is partition which will keep them from this cooperation. Partition will create two independent sovereignties on either side of the two unsatisfactory boundaries, and this is bound to produce extremist irredentas, and this, in its turn, will lead to armed conflict between the two peoples. Moreover partition will in all likelihood, Heaven forbid, lead to internecine warfare among the Jews.
Tiny Palestine must not be further divided. It should be kept whole, and thus give Jews the right and the opportunity to develop and settle in the whole of the country without any restrictions whatsoever.
The Ihud (Union) Association, for which I have the honour to speak, advocates a Bi-national Palestine for two equal nationalities, the Jews and the Arabs. We hear constantly that in important circles both in England and the United States and in some Arab lands the idea of bi-nationalism is regarded as just, reasonable and practical. Nevertheless it is held to be “impractical”, not because of nay inherent obstacles, but because both the Zionist and the Arab leaderships have led their followers into such an emotional, almost hysterical impasse, that it is difficult, if not impossible to propose a reasonable compromise.
This makes all the more important the need of your own leadership to rise above the political situation thus created to give evidence that there is, at least on the Jewish side, some statesmanship with imagination, authority and practical sense.
The Ihud (Union) Association outlined its views in detail before the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, and we think it a thousand pities that the Committee’s Report, both in its spirit and in its practical proposals, was not carried out without delay.
Permit me to give you a brief outline of the program which we suggest to you as a basis of discussion and, as we hope, for adoption, at least in its general tendencies.
1. Immigration: A large block of immigration certificates – as many as possible of the 100,000 proposed by the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry – should be issued at once for immediate use in transferring Jewish refugees from the Camps in Europe to Palestine.
Further immigration is to take place in accordance with the economic absorptive capacity of the country, and this economic absorptive capacity is to be enlarged through an adequately financed Development Plan for the benefit of all the inhabitants of the country without distinction of nationality or creed. It has been said on more than one occasion that the Government of the United States is ready to help finance such a Plan.
2. Land: Legislation restricting the sale of land to Jews to be annulled, and Jews and Arabs to be free to purchase land in all parts of the country, it being understood that legislation for the protection of farmers and peasants is to be enacted.
3. Self-government: Forthwith with the announcement of policy, Jews and Arabs are to appointed in equal numbers to the Executive Council of Government, to executive posts in the Secretariat, as heads of Central Government Departments, as Presidents of Courts and as District Commissioners. These appointments should be made in such a way as to result in an equal number of Jews, Arabs and British in such positions.
A Committee on Constitution, consisting of equal numbers of Jews, Arabs and British, to be appointed forthwith, and upon the conclusion of their work a Constituent Assembly, composed equally of Jews and Arabs, is to be convened for the adoption of a Constitution. The experience of other multi-national countries should be drawn upon.
4. Independence: The announcement of policy should contain a provision to the effect that after the elapse of, say, seven years, the Bi-national Palestine based upon two equal nationalities is to become independent. This will give time for Jewish immigration and for the transfer of all authority to the Bi-national State. At that time the legislature of the independent Bi-national Palestine will be able to determine if and in what way Palestine is to become a member of a wider Union of neighboring countries
We submit that a program such as this is reasonable, is fair and is practical. It can be carried out by the Mandatory Power under the terms of the Mandate, without seeking new authority, such as may be required for setting up two independent sovereign states, Jewish and Arab. This program can be carried out quickly, without the delay and the quarrels usually caused when the boundaries are to be drawn up.
If you ask me whether the Arabs will acquiesce in such a program, I say Yes. The Arabs will not acquiesce in the setting up of a Jewish State. They will acquiesce in the development of a unitary Palestine with self-government and with independence as its goal. If you ask me whether the Jews will acquiesce, I say Yes. They will have the opportunity of immigration and settlement and the chance of working out their future together with the other ancient Semitic people dwelling in the land and in the neighbouring countries.
Should the discussions in London break down for any reason, we suggest that the British Government be urged to send to Palestine a Cabinet Mission, similar to the Cabinet Mission to India, with full authority to negotiate with all parties concerned and to arrive at a settlement.
Thanking you for bring this statement to the attention of your Convention,
J. L. Magnes
Let me thank you for your letter of February the 6th enclosing Mr. Finkel’s letter to you of February the 5th. This came yesterday. I hope you and Cec had a good Cuban vacation.
The question before the Board can be put in simple terms: Does the Board wish me to continue in office in the University? This question would, I hope, be answered solely from the point of view of the University’s good, and not because of any personal feeling for or against me.
If I am to continue in some official position, that position must be a dignified one and it must be so described in the proposed Constitution. That is necessary not just for my sake, but primarily for the sake of the University itself. It would not do for any university with self-respect to think of or do less.
The wording which I propose is simple enough. It follows the procedure of British Universities. I think it necessary to follow this procedure rather than that of American institutions, because Palestine is in a British mandated territory.
It is on this account that the term President creates confusion both in America and in Great Britain. The America the President is the all-powerful executive of a University. That is what I was during those years when the University was being established and built up. In 1935 I gave up this position voluntarily and accepted an office, which was more or less titular and without any executive powers whatsoever. It was a misnomer to call it President. This should now, so I think, be corrected, and the terms Chancellor should be substituted.
The wording of the Constitution which I propose is as follows:
1. The Chancellor: A Chancellor shall be appointed by the Board of Governors for such period and under such conditions as the Board may decide.
2. His functions: He shall be titular Head of the University, and shall have precedence on ceremonial occasions, and he shall preside at the annual opening ceremony of the University, and distribute degrees, and he may also assume such other functions as the Board of Governors or the Executive Council or the Senate may from time to time request him to perform and he may be willing to undertake.
3. He shall represent the University on ceremonial occasions, and at such other times as the Board of Governors or the Executive Council or the Senate may determine and as may be agreed to by him.
I have had correspondence on this subject with Mr. Horowitz, Chairman of the Drafting Committee. He is, I think, in accord with paragraphs 1 and 2.
Paragraph 3 is a compromise which, I think, should be acceptable.
After giving the matter further thought I am not willing that the office I hold be called President Emeritus. The term President is open to the same objections as I have outlined above, and I do not think I have reached the stage where I should permit myself to be tagged as elderly.
I have on more than one occasion proposed, and this has met with considerable approval here, that the Chancellor be chosen not only by the Board of Governors, but by the full teaching staff of the University and its alumni. This is also somewhat in accord with English University practice. Inasmuch as the Chancellor is a public man standing for certain ideas and views, it is but fair that those, who are the actual workers at the University and carry out its daily tasks and really bear its burdens, should be given the privilege of expressing themselves as to who the titular Head of the University should be. I am incline to think that some of those who charge me publicly and privately with not being a good enough Zionist would probably be surprised at the very large vote of confidence, which the people who are in contact with me and know me, would, I think, give me. Why not try it out once and for all? Moreover, I cannot resist noting that those who talk about my lack of true Zionism do not seem to hesitate about accepting non-Zionist support for the University.
The late Mr. Ussishkin, with whom I had many political differences, but for whom I had very great affection, once said at a meeting: “They can put Magnes out of the University, but Magnes cannot put the University out of his heart”. That is true, and I have indicated in my first letter to you what I am expected to do in connection with the University, whether in office or out.
If all this, or any of this, give rise to serious controversy. I should prefer to have the whole thing dropped and to hold no office at all. My life has been sufficiently full of combat on many fronts; but I determined many years ago that I would not wage war within the Hebrew University. It is too near and dear to me. It is indeed my own child.
I shall be glad to answer any further questions or give any further information you may desire, and I wish once again to thank you for your readiness to act as my proxy.
Please extend my good wishes to all of those attending the Meeting. May it make for the deepening of the University’s foundations and for the enlargement of its opportunities for good.
I am sending you a copy of a letter which I have addressed to the Rector concerning the question of honorary degrees in the University.
I have no objection to your showing my letter to you of January 15 and my present letter, as also my letter to the Rector, to those who are to participate in the meeting of the Board of Governors and to the members of the American Friends, or to anyone else you may want to. It is likely that I shall be showing this correspondence to members of the Senate here.
February 17, 1947
Professor M. Fekete
Rector of the Hebrew University
Dear Professor Fekete,
Let me thank you for having come to me yesterday and asking if I would be ready to accept the honorary doctor’s degree of the Hebrew University.
I told you then that I did not think that the Hebrew University should embark upon this course. I know it is usual among universities, but it seems to me like playing with ribbons and medals, and I have constantly refused the kind offers of other universities to confer a honorary degree upon me. This calling of men to a platform and reading citations does not strike me as serious. The Hebrew University, situated as we are, not far from the desert both physical and spiritual, has a deadly serious work to do, and I should regret to see it playing with baubles for the sake of propaganda.
Had the suggestion of an honorary degree come from the Senate here rather than from the exigencies of propaganda in America, I should have been more inclined to treat the proposal seriously.
Yet, if the University is to embark upon this course, I was impressed by your argument that an honorary degree to me from the Hebrew University was quite different from that offered by any other institution; and moreover it might not be understood, particularly in America, if my name were not included.
The conclusion I have come to therefore is:
First, to try to prevail upon the Board of Governors not to confer honorary degrees.
Second, that if they are conferred, they must have the approval of the Senate.
Third, that if this procedure be nevertheless adopted, I am ready to have my name included for the reasons given above.
I am sending a copy of this letter to Mr. Wertheim, who is to act as my proxy at the meeting of the Board.
J. L. Magnes
I am enclosing copies of two letters to Mr. Maurice Wertheim, and I would ask that you be kind enough to bring them, as also this letter to you, to the attention of the Senate.
I was very glad to gather from your letter of February the 7th that the University had a good chance to be included for an increased sum within the United Jewish Appeal, and also that progress was being made in straightening out differences between the Friends and Dr. Wechsler’s Committee.
I am enclosing herewith copies of two letters which I have written to Mr. Wertheim, whom I have asked to act as my proxy at the meeting of the Board, as also of a letter to the Rector on the question of honorary degrees.
Dr. Yassky is expecting to leave in two days direct for America, and Professor Fekete will be leaving on March the 6th. Professor Adler and Dr. Ben-David have left. There should, therefore, be a very good meeting in connection with Medical School developments.
I am sorry not to be able to agree with you that no decisions on the proposed Constitution should be come to. Whatever be the attitude of the meeting towards the rest of the Constitution, I would ask you and Mr. Wertheim to convey to the meeting my anxiety that the paragraphs on the President on Chancellor, as I have outlined them in my letter to Mr. Wertheim of February the 17th, be discussed and acted upon. I should not want any misunderstanding to prevail here when Sir L. Simon returns. Nor would I want this matter to be deferred to a meeting where the two or three English gentlemen (and I am not referring to Dr. Weizmann), who have been in control of the affairs of the Board for years past, should again have their say without an adequate representation of the American Governors. This has been the situation in the past, and it may, unfortunately, remain the situation for the future. But I would not want this to be the decisive factor in my own case.
J. L. Magnes
Your letter of February 7 came yesterday.
All arrangements have been made for me to leave for London on the plan starting from Lydda tomorrow morning. Unfortunately I have a slight attack of flu and yesterday I had temperature, and Dr. Rachmilevitz is to come over this morning to tell me, so I am afraid, that I cannot go tomorrow. That is a great pity. All arrangements had been made through Government here for me to see the Colonial Secretary on Friday the 21st, and they were asked to arrange a meeting for me with the Foreign Secretary.
The situation can be summed up in two sentences from Lord Samuel: “Since Government are not at last drawing nearer to the lines which you and I have been advocating for so long, they may be very glad of your assistance in working them out. If you are able to come, you will no doubt let me know when it will be.
From all appearances this would be just the time for someone to get to London with the kind of proposals, which we have been making all this time. The Conference with the Arabs and the Talks with the Jews of course broke down, and it must appear obvious, even to the most intransigent, that there is no other way of peace and progress in Palestine, except through Jewish-Arab cooperation. How this is to be brought about is of course a tremendously complicated problem. But granting that the main objective of declared policy, whether by Great Britain or by UNO, would be Jewish-Arab cooperation in an undivided Palestine with two equal nationalities, I am convinced today more than ever that we would find the way.
It now becomes the function of each of us to try to think this problem through and to take genuinely practical and effective steps to convince those who make policy in England, America, France, Russia, and in the UNO, that every other day, whether it be a full state or a half state, is doomed to failure and trouble, and that there is a great chance if the Holy Land be kept whole and the Jews and the Arabs be given this lead from above to try to adjust their life and their needs and their aspirations to one another.
It was this that I was expecting to talk about in London. I suppose they will let me go in a week hence. But it depresses me, because it seems to me that now is the time.
You are right in thinking that I hesitate to leave here, because unfortunately I seem to be at times practically the only one with access to the highest quarters in Government. I had to intervene laterally on behalf of the Chief Rabbi to secure an interview for him, which the Chief Rabbinate and the Mayor of Tel Aviv and all the others were unable to secure. I have been told that, if any further terror breaks out, exceedingly severe measures will be taken. They will be of such a nature as to impede the progress of the country for years to come. I have tried to convey some of these things to some of our friends. But we still live with these dangerous illusions that have delivered us for years, and I notice that we are going through the same process again now that the UNO is in the picture.
I wonder why it is that the so-called moderates in America are so ineffective, even powerless. The one person who seems to have any courage at all is Lessing Rosenwald. But his organization has too unfortunate a history. The American Jewish Committee content themselves with pious resolutions about immigration and are afraid to take a stand on the basic burning political issue. The Jewish Labour Committee the same. The American Association for Union in Palestine seems almost to have been stillborn, although I am still hoping that it may come into life. People like Mrs. Jacobs and Alexander Dushkin, than whom are no finer persons or better Jews and Zionists, seem to content themselves with agreeing with me but without being able to make up their minds to act. The non-Zionist members of the Jewish Agency in America might at the present time have a genuine role to play. But can they be moved into systematic, vigorous activity; and who will do it? It really ought to be your task and that of Mrs. Jacobs and of Hexter. You at least resigned from the Executive, they did not.
There is one great thing that might bind together thousands and tens of thousands, and not only Jews alone – cooperation in the Holy Land of two equal peoples. If there was a sincere, vigorous group in America ready to fight for this, I think I should be ready to come and give a lot of time and energy to preaching this message and to organizing public opinion in its favor, so that by the time the UNO meet, there would be an organization which could stand up with some authority.
I am writing you another letter on University matters.
With best regards,
J. L. Magnes
THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY, JERUSALEM
April 24, 1947
Professor N. Glueck
162 Glenmary Ave.
Your letter of April 8th was very welcome. It is a faithful picture of the travail you are going through. I know that you will come out right, and I must confess that I am, under all circumstances, very glad that the Nominating Committee have accepted you despite, or maybe because of, your deep hesitations and your frankness and honesty.
What you say of your depression over what you found on your return is all too clear to me. But that is just your problem to create a situation which will, at least, half way satisfy you. If that can be done, you will have made a great contribution to the cause of Judaism. I am crossing my fingers and I am exceedingly anxious to have word from you when the die is cast.
All I can say is, keep your temper in check and your good spirits high and remain your direct honest self, without yielding on the main issues. American Judaism needs a clean, intelligent, fervent voice like yours.
I have been pretty sick with bronchel-pneumonia. I am ever so much better, and I am hoping soon to be permitted to be a more or less normal person again. Aside from the disease itself, or maybe a result of it, I have had a terrible struggle with sleep. That is, I seem to have unlearned all that I knew about regular sleep. But last night I had the great experience of having 4 hours of more or less connected sleep. I am still dazed by the great event. I was to have left for England on February 19th in order to try to persuade some of the English statesmen along Ihud lines. On that day, however, I was put to bed by Dr. Rachmilevitz, and after several days at home I was taken to the hospital, where I stayed for more than three weeks. I got home before Seder, which we celebrated quietly with David and Nora. Jonathon and his family were in Tel Aviv.
What a pity it was that I could not go to England at that time. I think it might have made a difference. There were others who thought so too. I think this was the one real frustration of my life. Perhaps I shall be in a position to do something in connection with the discussion at the United Nations.
It has been a real disappointment to me to find that the committee which I was able to organize in New York last summer has gone to pot. I do not think that that was necessary.
Jonathon and his family will probably be leaving here the second week in May for New York. I am sure he will be wanting to get into touch with you. You can imagine how sorry we are to see them go, but it is in a good and proper cause.
Everyone here is very much depressed over what is happening. We still have a great deal in store for us.
Give our love to Helen and Charles Jonathon.
[Handwritten note:] Dear Gluecks,
Much love to all of you. Nelson, we miss you a lot. Love to Mrs. Glueck.
May 9, 1947
162 GLENMARY AVE
OUR HOPES AND PRAYERS IN YOUR GREAT DIFFICULT TASK MAY YOU BE GUIDED BY THE TRUTH WITHIN YOU AND YOUR LOVE OF ISRAEL LOVE TO HELEN CHARLES =