June | July | October | November | December



Left Side:

[More cover, insert more cover details.]

Right Side:


June 15, 1942

Of ZDPV 49, p. 162: A456.

Limestone dorr, irrigation stone and metal knobs, with cbex [?] homed animal on left side, a lion on left, both defaced. Bar hole under lion’s head.

In same courtyard, large basalt sarcophagus [?], with Greek inscription on lid. Plain Byzantine sarcophagus box, with Byzantine cross at right side, with tree on left side. [sketch] is ornament.

Over doorway a wreath, at bottom two endwind snakes, and on other side a petaled flower with circle in center and head in center of it.

Two encircling walls, with most between there, covered tell at Husn. Modern graveyard on top. Several curved buildings. Sherds from early Bronze to mediaeval Arabic. Situated on the North side of town, behind large Roman birkeh, which is still used today. Town itself full of burial shafts and chambers, and remains of Byz. and Roman structures. The burial place today is on tell, a burial place of tell was in modern town.

Right Side:

June 16, 1942. Of Schumacher and Stewermafel 433f. ZDPV 49, T


Kufi Melek (possibly Tell el Balad on map. On high hill overlooking of Husn Tell el-Husn no visible remains now except numerous Rom.-Byzantine and few med. Arabic sherds. Numerous large bell-cisterns, with mouths cut through 1-3 metres of rock and ruin around mouth into which a cover fitted. Saw and such cisterns, there are probably more on s.w. side [?] of quarry. Top of hillside planted to grapes and ploughed over on the South and West sides of the hill-top is called Wadi el-Ain, although there seems to be no spring there now. Some mosaic stores here, of a rough, Byz. type.

Left Side:

Qasr Raksah in Schumacher and Stewermagel 431 f. Abb. 177. 431; Taf. 17.

Right Side:

(3) Qoss Rahsah

of 2DPV 48, 1925, Pl.8=”Adschlam Tafl 17”

1.5 kil. WNW of el-Awen.

Large flint block, and limestone quarry very widely [?], round tower with door on south side. Looks like EI site, isolated to Kh. Medmar etc. Ground ploughed up to very edge of structure.

Large quartz stone over entrance = 1.7 x .80 x .85 meters. The round tower is about 4 meters in diameter. The door on the south side is 140 meters high and 70 wide. The door on the south side is 1.4 meters high and .70 wide.

There are exposed marks in rocks by it, and in east and north side are 3 cisterns, the one on the n. side still being in use.

1) Rakseh- on a high, fairly steep hill above Qasr Raksah to the n. w. of it is Rakseh. The hill and slopes are situated from bottom to top, with abundant Roman-Byz. and med. Arabic sherds. Several large cisterns, and large cup-hollows in rock. No sherds indubitably earlier than Roman. About 500 meters one of Qasr Rakseh are remains of another wide tower like Qasr Raksah and on ridge of hill east of it, about ¾ kilometres away,

Left Side:

additional remains like Qasr Raksah. They might have been watch-towers in gardens, or a system of defense works like Rujn Malfuf.

Right Side:

Of shumacher, Stewermagel 429 xig (?)[?]

5) Kh. Schah is a completely round site, with traces of a wall around it on hill top overlooking village of Eidem from south. Between here and Rokseh we passed maybe 20 rock-cut cisterns and rectangular cups in rocks, which latter were evidently used for grapes or olives being pressed. There evidently at one time was a marvelous conservation of water here in the vicinity, and an extremely different type of farming, which is now devoted entirely to wheat.

Predominantly Roman and Byzantine sherds a few inconclusive ones which might be earlier, but not demonstrably so at west end of site, which is on a ridge-running e-w is a cistern in use today.

Left Side:

Tell Johfiyeh = Tell dseuhfiye Schumacher and Stewermagel A 430

Right Side:

June 16, 1942.

7) Tell Jehfiyeh- round, measuring about 35 meters in diameter, with walls still visible around it, 1 meter thick, and foundations still visible about 3 meters deep in places. From west to east it measures about 37 meters, and from north to south it measures about 35 meters from outer edge to outer edge. There are traces of ruined later buildings on slopes. The top is perfectly round, and flat, and ploughed over, the grain just having been harvested. This Tell is visible for miles round about, and commands a view towards the hills of Palestine over the Ghor. Still higher above it is the village of el-Mazar to the sw. Tell Beit Yafa is visible in the distance to the W.N.W Particularly on the top of this mound of Tell Johfiyah were typical EI sherds. However sherds ranging form Roman to med. Arabic were also found. The outer wall is about 1 meter wide. The water for this place evidently came from cisterns, as it does today for the small village of Johfiyeh. I found one complete lamp on surface, which has evidently been ploughed up.

Left Side:

About 75 meters east and below the mound is a knoll, much lower than the mound, on which are some completely ruined buildings, and numerous Byzantine sherds.

The encircling wall is made of large, roughly hewn flint blocks, with rude bonding, which has nevertheless survived during the ages. This is a completely isolated little hill-top, and obviously at one time guarded the fields cultivated on the slopes below it, and on the neighboring hills. Tonight for instance, I am writing at 6:50, shortly after sundown, they are removing the wheat in the breeze from the s.w. in the village below.

At one time, the hillsides were obviously much more heavily wooded than now. There are fruit trees, olive, big and meshmish, etc. in the village, which has almost 200 people.

Right Side:

6) Hofa- Rom.-Byz. and large number of medieaeval Arabic sherds about an acre or two of ruined buildings built on ruins of Roman buildings. There are several cisterns here. Between Kh. Shihah and Hofa there are several small similar places this place completely ploughed over. It is east and below Tell Johfiyah.

Schumacher and Stewermagel A429,457f. ZDPV49.

With Rashid Homad

Left Side:

There is a cistern on the east side, probably others round about, with a cup mark near it.

Right Side:

June 17, 1942.

Stevernagel ZDPV49, p.A416


Tell Ayateh = (er-Rakiyeh)

is w. and above the village of Deir Yusuf, which itself is on a ridge. To the East, on a still higher hill, Tell Johfiyah is visible. Tell Beit Yafa is visible below us to the north on its own prominent hill. There is absolutely nothing left on this hill-top except widely terraced fields with a pile of field stones in the center, on top of which a grave has been built. The sherds are few and far between, and have to be looked for hard, and are apparently mostly Roman and Byzantine. There are a number of sherds, however, which make me feel that this place may originally be BA. The rapidly eroding hills have been planted to grain, which has now been harvested, and is being threshed on the various village threshing floors. There is a cistern on the lower W. side of this hill, and there were probably other in ancient times. It turns out that there is very clear EB here, including one ledge-handle. Meraoreh is visible on a hill higher than this to the South.

Left Side:

Actually, the entire hill-top was EB, and probably the outer edges of it, which must circumscribe on of about 5 acres, were contained within a large stone wall, which has completely disappeared. On a ridge, leading away from it to the west on the south side are several cisterns. There does not seem to be a spring around here today, everybody depending upon cisterns. The village of Deir Yusef is growing rapidly, and contains within it probably some Roman-Byz. ruins.

On Tell Ayateh was a large broken stone circular trough of limestone.

Right Side:

Stevernagel, ZDPV XLIX, p.A.428


el-Merama = rumrama

a completely ploughed over, very high hill, partly terraced today, with very large quantities of Roman to medieval Arabic sherds. Nothing earlier found, but may be convealed among the abundance of later material. Commands a view over Johfiyeh, Tell Ayateh to NNE, and over Mazar to South. Numerous cisters and cave cisterns.



Less than ½ kilometer southeast of Merama, and below it is a hill with some new buildings on top of it. Rom-Byz. sherds, and med. Arabic on its slopes. 2 cisterns with old stone watering troughs on n.e. site.



(Stevernagel, ZDPV XLIX, p. A.428)

East of Merama, across a valley, about a kilometer away is a large, secured Byz. building of cut limestone blocks, pretty

Left Side:

well destroyed, with a large cave cistern on w. side. Several other about. The sherds are predominantly Byzantine. The building is oriented w-e, and the outlines of large rooms oriented n-s are visible. The front of the building is on the W. side. A large cave-cistern on east side.



On a sloping bench leading to hill above it, and overlooking sloping fields which lead to hill-top in which is Johfiyeh. There are several cave-cisterns and cisterns, one in particular having a splendid cistern mouth and basin carved out of a large rock. The sherds here are Rom.-Byz.-med. Arabic in large numbers, perhaps with earlier among them.

Right Side:

Stevernagel, ZDPV 49, p.A.426



about 1 kilometer NW of Samed, below it is a large dolman-like stone circle.

In Samed we saw top of a Roman or Byz. sarcophagus, with 2 entwined snakes and 2 rosettes. Like stone we saw in doorway at el-Husn. We also saw a ruined Byz (?) [sic] building at east end of town. There is supposed to be a stone with Roman head on it, but I got too tired to look at it.

Right Side:

June 18, 1942


Ra ya

A small, round, medieval Arabic building, probably a little mosque. It is near the top of a hillside somewhat below and south of Samed. There is an abundance of med. Arabic sherds here, also some Byzantine and Roman. There are several large cave cisterns.

[Arabic script] Meytwon


is S.E. of Samed and WSW of [?]. It is across the Wadi el-Hajar. It is on top of a hill, somewhat below elevation of Samad. Village of Halaka is visible from here. The slopes and top of this hill are completely ploughed over. There are numerous cisterns and cave cisterns on the slopes of the hill. To the N., as from all these sites can be seen the Jehel esh-Sheikh, which has just a gleam of new on it at the top. The sherds from

Left Side:

this place are Roman and Byzantine, -more of the latter.



Same story as METWAN. Roman, Byzantine, and few med. Arabic sherds. ZAMBOT MELEIK visible on a hill-top to the South. Large cave cisterns also on the isolated, completely ploughed over hill, which is on a lower elevation than SAMAD, and also lower than Zamkut Maleik. There are some cut stones of Byz. ruins on top of the hill. Johfiyeh also visible from here.

Zambut Meleik – Stevernagel, ZDPV 49, p.A. 433

Right Side:


On a hilltop below Zambut Meleik, with a curved, small, Byzantine building overlooking the South side of the wadi. The rest of the hill is cultivated also, although its top is below that of Zambut Meleik. There are numerous cisterns and cave cisterns, and by the ruined building are several Rom-Byz. graves, with one sarcophagus still in position, at least 2 more much eroded by it. The one in position has had its ornamentaion broken off. It is on a cut stone foundation, which seems to have other buried chambers.

The sherds are Roman-Byz., including Roman sigallate.

Jariya Stevernagel ZDPV49, p.A. 433


a small, ploughed up site across the wadi, like Dariya, we didn’t visit it.

Left Side:

SRAS SARAST (23) Stevernagel, ZDPV 49, p.A425

We are in a scrub oak area, with the hillsides cleared and tilled where not eroded or eroding. This was obviously once heavily wooded, and the hillsides are still green with scrub oak. This is a sizeable, completely ruined site, lest heavily occupied in med. Arabic pd.; also Rom. and Byz. sherds. Numerous cisterns and cave cisterns. Apparently each house had its own cistern, and rock-cups or basins for pressing of olives (?). Jebel esh-Sherkh visible from top of hill.


el-Kaferi (Stevernagel, ZDPV 49, p.A425)

Same as a Salasi [?], with apparently a stretch of the Roman road between there. This place is on a ridge. Fairly good land between those two sites. Kaferi commands a view over Mazar to the NW. There are numerous cisterns here. The extant [?] buildings are med. Arabic.

Right Side:

el-Kareri is a little lower than Sasisi [?]

Right Side:

June 19, 1942 ZDPV 49, p.A.413 p.A. 519

Tell el-Ajmi (25)

completely ploughed over hill-top, a few Byz. and Roman sherds. Not a real tell at all. Overlooks double villate of Embeh.

Tell el-Belhi (26)

an about completely eroded [?] hill overlooking Imbeh. In Roman Times numerous rock-pierced cisterns, basins hollowed out in rock, testify to intensive rise of hill, which is practically completely eroded and abandoned, except for patches devoted to wheat, today.

JEBATION (27) ZDPV 49, p. A414

On anciently terraced hillside, given over to wheat today. This hillside commands a view over the police post of Deir Abu Said, on the hills overlooking the Ghor, and it commands a view looking to the hills of northern Palestine. The sherds here are EI (terribly worn) Rom. –Byz. and a few med. Arabic.

Left Side:

There is a small numberof [?] cisterns on the slopes. Others must have existed. The [?] of springs in the area must be due to [?] down of forests. There are no ruins whatsover left on the site, so thoroughly is it ploughed over. Northern T.S. is much more thickly inhabited than southern or central Transjordan today.

NAQIA (28) ZDPV 49, p.A.415

On slopes and on top of a high hill overlooking Inbeh and Kufi Kifya, an abundance of Roman-Byzantine and med. Arabic pottery. Several large cisterns and cave cisterns passed on way up. The side down and up the wadi between this place and Inbeh one of the most difficult and steep I have ever taken. The houses were magnificent. On the rocks on top of the hill are cut basins, presses, etc. The agriculture formerly was completely different.

Right Side:

The bottom parts of the large hill are completely eroded. Some modern ruins on top. Numerous cisterns visible.

el-KHLEIDEH (29)

On ENE side commanding a view over the wadi towards Tell Beit Yafa, which is visible is a field of large, broken down dolmans. Across the small cultivated valley to the SSW is Aagria. This site is on an anciently terraced hill, just a little below the height of NEQIA, and commanding a view to the ENE of Tell Beit Yafa. There are some fragments of ruins of an early period, offhand they look more BA than anything else. The sherds, very worn, and very difficult to find are mostly EI, with probably some MB and EB among them, and some Rom.-Byz. This place also commands a view of KUFR KIYA. There are no cisterns here, so there must at one time have been a spring. This also commands a view of the villages of Beit Yafa and INBEH being between them.

Right Side:

el- Keinusi (30) [Arabic script]

WNW of Samoa is this completely destroyed Rom.-Byz. and med. Arabic site, with no ruins left, and in part anciently terraced Byz.-Roman mosaic stones visible.

Just west of Samera a field of broken down stone circles on bases related to dolmans. Some modern watchman’s ports are being built on top of them. We have entered a less steep, and more cultivated area. To the west, Mt. Tabor in Palestine is clearly visible. Some sigellata, and one piece of stamped ware of a type new to me, but surely Roman. Tebneh visible on high hill across wadi to south. ZAMBAG is also above this place.

Of. Stevernagel, ZDPV 49, p.A.418, p.A419 for chirbet el-kanusi

Right Side:

ZDPV 49, p.A. 415 IZMAL

Kh. ZEMAL (31)

Just west of the village of Zemal, on a rise in the midst of a very old olive grove, and big grove, is a small ruin which is now a modern grave yard. A Roman pillar may be seen in the midst of the graveyard. The sherds are old Rom.-Byz. med. Arabic This is one of the oldest olive groves I have seen in Transjordan, and may well have been the same in Roman Times! Limestone presses are still visible, and some in use.

DUWEIR (32) ZDPV 49, p.A. 415

Across the wadi N of Zamal and S of Telsuh, approximately is a very large, anciently terraced hill-top and side, on an elevation somewhat below Tebreh and Zamal, clear sherds are Byzantine. One sherd may be EI. Ancient terraces.

Right Side:

A large hill top now abandoned, with one tiny family being on it during the harvest, and reusing one ancient cistern, where top is covered with a flat stone.

On the top of the hill is a large rock hewn brikeh [?], a large cave- cistern unto which steps lead, about 4 other cisterns I counted, (There are probably more) one rectangular burial shaft, another with three loculi for burials with steps leading down to it, an oil press. The burkeh measures about 6×40 meters. The sherds are Roman-Byz., with some med.-Arabic. Some mosaic stones here as in all the other Roman-Byzantine sites.

Right Side:

Kh. Hsein Stevernagel, ZDPV 49, p.A 413 chirbet el-ahseni

A completely destroyed EI site, with an abundance of EI pottery, which to be sure has to be looked for in the fields ploughed to the edge of the rocky mound, which is littered with stones (building?) [sic]. There are some Byz. and Roman sherds too. The mound or hill rather is completely isolated by wadis, the easiest approach being the one to the SSE, which leads to the hill of TIBNEH, which towers above it. Tebneh must occupy an ancient site Kh. Hsein guards the approach from the NNW.

There are some quite old olive trees growing on the SSE side, and some caves near the top of the hill on the W side.

We are spending the night in Tebreh in the house- Sheikh Mohammed ibn Hady Kleib Rishei el-Shneidi [?]

Right Side:

June 18, 1942.

Stevernagel, ZDPV49, p.A.487 (Sajaret Beit Yafa) pl A.430.


Tell Beit Yafa, on a prominent rise, commanding a view over Beit Yafa and Deir Yusif. It is on a hill top, with a wadi on either N and S side. It has an excellent view on to Tell Johfiyeh. The hill-top is completely isolated, and is lettered with rude flint building stones of various periods. There is an extraordinary look of sherds- the few found being almost indistinguishable. It is possible to say there are some EI, some Roman and Byz. sherds. The top of the mound cliff is pretty small. Kom Kufe Yaba is also visible from here. Tell Sheqaq is not visible from here, being hidden behind an interesting hill. Village of Somed also visible. Most of the sherds are Roman, including a piece of sigillate and Byzantine. There are a few EI sherds. The mount top is oriented e-w. Measures 21 by 15.5 meters.

All of this country thus far is a rolling, hilly country, wooded as recently as Turkish times, with the hills now rapidly eroding. In ancient times most of this must have been forested.

Right Side:

(35) June 22, 1942.

Menweh Stevernagel, ZDPV 49, p. A406 el-manwa

On a hill top overlooking Abu el-Qein Menweh. It is completely destroyed, and almost completely ploughed over. Sherds hard to find. Also a few Rom.-Byz. and med. Arabic. One sherd found may be EI. This is a broad hill-top, and cannot be measured as a fortress, but rather as a farm-settlement. Near the NW end is a cistern, which looks modern. Other sources of water not now visible. At SE end of site several broken down dolmans are visible. The gradual slopes were anciently terraced. The steepest slope is on the E side. This place commands a view over the Ghor.

Right Side:

(36) Stevermagel, ZDPV 49, p.A406. dahr el-bedd


Deir Yusuf is 55 degree from here, [?].o, NNE Abu Said.

About a kilometer WSW of Abu el-Qein, on top of a large hill that rises above it, is a completely ruined large BA, Rom.-Byz. site. The eagle in the Amman museum came from this place and there is an abundance of BA sherds, small number of Roman sherds.

The hillsides were anciently terraced and the earth is still in place. This place commands a view over the Ghor, and on to Deir Abu Said. Abu el-Qein is visible below here. There is a very good dolman standing on the lower east side of the hill, which is completely ploughed over, and on which some Balut [?] trees are growing. This is a very large site once. No cisterns visible.

Left Side:

On the east side of the mound is Ain Biadh, which only has water occasionally.

el-Ljen (37) [Arabic Script]

small Roman-Byz. and med. Arabic site on flat hill-top. Cave cisterns- area used as wheat field today. Rock-cuttings, shaft, etc.

Ej-Jelmeh (38)

Across a small valley is just the same, but more littered with building-stones.

Right Side:

Umm el-Meneibin (39) ZDPV 48, p.A.325

Church with EIYNTEW [?] on right lower west side. on South side on left side NIXWC (on N side) over figure of squatting man with left hand stretched out but 2 flowers. It is a Byzantine church floor. At night, west end is an umbrella. The church mosaic picture is 1.20x.75.

Near the center of the floor the following inscription on a pillar measuring 1.3 centimeters, the base being .35 centimeters wide and height of base being 27 centimeters.


1T [?]



The Nelus figure is 1120 centimeters long.

Left Side:

Umm el-Meneibia

Church is on SW corner

Nelos [?] is on NW side

On SF side hand of a man in spared section.

On S side near center a hand holding a spear [?] mosaic floor repaired early

Khirbet Mahra (19b)

Stevernagel, 2DPV 48, p.A.324.325 = Roman, Byz.

Ain Mahnu

20PV 48, p.A325



ZDPV 48, p.A.325


(small village on site)

Right Side:

June 23, 1942

Etafein 39e (all under 40)

Deir el-Asal

A Roman-Byz., med. Arabic ruin on a hill-top wth some Roman and Byzntine and med. Arabic foundation still standing. So many weeds on the hill-top, that it was difficult to find sherds. Sherds of the pls. [?] mentioned were found, however.

June 24 Umm el-Menubiya (cont.) Stevermagel ZDPV XLVIII, p. A325

This is one of the most beautiful spots in the Jebel Aghin, on a very high hill, largely wooded with scrub oak and bur[?], partly farmed and partly given over to vineyards. To the south, the top of the castle is visible. The sherds are largely Byz., some Roman, and some med. Arabic. There must have been a lovely little church on top of this

Left Side:

hill, overlooking the descent to the wonderful spring of Mehna.

Right Side:


Immediately around the marvelous spring of Ain Mehra, and particularly on its east and n.e. side we found clear BA sherds. On the slopes leading n.e. from the spring I found no BA sherds, although there were some Byz., Rom. And Arabic on the slopes leading up to Johtafina (45). I found fragments of BA and Rom.-Arabic sherds. The hillsides particularly on the west side of the spring are anciently terraced, probably in BA time. The spring gushes forth through pipes- it has been recently properly dug out and piped. It is a very strong spring and confirms the rule, – wherever there is a strong spring, I have always found a BA site. I believe springs must have existed at places where I found BA sherds, but where no springs flow today.


Right Side:

July 12, 1942 (41) Hakima

Stevermagel, ZDPV 49, p. A477 HAKAMA

Granite and basalt tomb doors in village. Greek inscription on one basalt piece. Some tomb bintels [?] of basalt built into mosque. Some of those objects may have come from Beit Ras. All are from Beit Ras.

The granite doors have disfigured faces on them. All the water here comes from cisterns. The country is comparatively flat and rolling. In the distance the hills of Syria are visible, and the dock line [?] of gear in front of them showing where the Wadi Yarmek is. The wheat harvest in this area has been good this year. If there ever were any trace here, they are all gone now. This place is high, and it has been blowing strongly here all afternoon.

The sun went down at 7:45 PM.

Right Side:

July 13


A hill separated by valley from Maru. The hillsides between here and Beit Ros are full of graves and caves of Roman [?].

Beit-Ras (42) Stevermagel, ZDPV 49, p.A.478-80

A large modern town on hill-top with rolling country between hills which are not very high. The houses in this village are pretty substantial looking. The inscriptions here have squeeze of them in Jerusalem.

There are numerous building fragments of limestone and basalt along the road to this place.

[Greek script]

Right Side:

Beit Ras

[Greek Script]

Beit Mifleh Mohammed el-Hussein over one doorway is a a basalt lintel with


[Greek script]

Left Side:

There are other inscriptions around, one being too unclear to make out when we saw it with the sun shining directly on it. It is on a limestone burial in house of Ahmed edh-Shiab il-Ams.

There is a part of a Byzantine altar post in the Medageh in Beit-Ras. The Roman Beit Ras was encircled by a wall which does not seem to have guided the tell, which was built also in Roman Times.

A tremendous cistern at the bottom of the hillside west of Beit-Ras, gathered the run-off from the entire hillside, and stored it in a monumental underground cistern, which ran approximately from N to S, and at bottom of S end is a cave which I am told runs from S to E and empties into large Birqeh in village. The opening of the canal (all underground) is still visible, at the bottom of the hillside, on the west end, are large openings about every 10 metres into which the water pound into this huge underground Roman reservoir. We picked up all kinds

(rock-cut channels on hillside led to the underground reservoir)

Right Side:

of Roman sherds on this hillside, but are not saving any. Roman coins are for sale in the village.

Each house in the village has Roman stones in its walls and in its courtyard.

(some stone doors of tombs seen in several houses)

The plastic lining of this huge underground cave 350 meters. Long reservoir is 7 layers thick, some 12 centimeters.

The plaster is still largely intact.

The tunnel is artificial, divided into separate compartments, still catches some water. It is about 4 meters wide and about 10 metres high- children however crawled through the canal to the Bisfah.

el-MEIDAN (43)Stevermagel, ZDPV49, p.A.480

The canal goes through tell at South end and enters village on east side of tell where birkeh is located.

Sherds on slope of tell Beit Ras on Roman is glazed med. Arabic

SE of Beit Ras, across a small interviewing valley on a hill-top, with a surveyer’s reign on it today. There are Roman caves, cisterns, and tombs, and traces of stone vaults, which once supported building the hill which has fairly

Right Side:

Gradual slopes is completely ploughed over. Numerous Arabic (fairly modern) sherds found on it, but no painted or slip Arabic med. Sherds. There are some Hellenistic, quite a few much broken Roman, and a fair number of EI (and perhaps LB and of MB)

There is a good view from here to Beit Ras, which I shall photograph, from here Beit Ras has appearance of a tell. This site commands a view of village from n.e. to s. To the east are visible hills of Transjordan in east.

A Cypro-Phoen. sherd was found here. On the S to E sides are traces of ancient BA terraces, and probably on all sides. There are definitely BA sherds. There are fragments of basalt mills and bowls scattered about. On N. side especially are caves, which, however, with cisterns and one large rock hole exist also on SE side, and caves and cisterns on all sides.

Right Side:

El-Meidan (43a)

On the W lower slope of Meidan, at bottom of hillside, on N of cave-cistern, and near NW end of lower W. side of Beit Ras, (the house with watch tower on W slope of Beit Ras being visible from here, that ancient small building is just above under-ground reservoir of Beit Ras) is hewn in sloping limestone rock what seems to be an Alexandrian church, with a chapel on either side, the one on the S side near the cistern being the clearer of the two chapels.

Above the left (N) side of main chapel there seem to be XA, meaning perhaps Alexandria.

The “cistern” is a tomb with 3 sarcophagi still in place. Originally there were probably at least 6 of them. On left

Left Side:

Side is opening to another tomb space.

Right Side:


I took a snap of it but light at 2:30 P.M. was most unfavorable.

Right Side:

el-Hereina (44)

A completely ploughed over, rocky hil, with numerous places where earth has been worn away, with comparatively few Rom.-Byz. sherds, and numerous tombs and caves. Irbid and Beit Ras and Sal visible from here, and particularly Tell Shein on the sky-line. Some burial shafts visible on surface hewn into surface rock. Lids missing, which fitted into grooved rims.

Tell Binket es-Sopran (Wakran Soaran on the map) Stewermagel ZDPV 49, p.A 480


Maru is visible n.e. of here. At n.e. end of site in a large, rectangular, brikeh cut out of the rock. This fairly rolling hill, is completely ploughed over. There are several cisterns and cave cisterns here. A small number of Roman-Byz. sherds, and possibly two BA sherds. SAL is visible to SE.

Kefat el-Amawi


Tell Kafat el-Amawi

High hill top, with modern surveyor’s rijm on it, and small Roman Birkeh. Small number of Roman-Byz. sherds and a flint-knife site. A small birkeh cut out of rock on top of hill, which commands view of entire rolling country side with cultivated rolling small plains (valleys) between hills. The rijm of Meidan visible from here, as are Beit Ras, Isbid, Habema and Mame.

Orifinally the Birkeh was a quarry. At W corner can be seen place when they started to cut out a rock. Near same corner is a hole in rock where later horses were watered (?) [sic].

Right Side:

July 14, 1942. Monday.



Immediately e.n.e of Beit Ras across a small divide. Numerous rock cut shafts on top of the completely ploughed over hill-top, which rises not too steeply. Sherds are Roman to med. Arabic. Some flint-drums. No sherds collected. Numerous Byzantine mosaics.

Tell el-Melh Stevernagel, Stevernagel ZDPV 49, p.A480

Another completely ploughed over, not too steep hill-top, clost to Beit Ras. (The more I look at Tell Beit Ras, the more convinced I am that it is earlier than Roman although we found no sherds earlier than Roman there or here). The sherds here are Roman-Byz. On top of the hill is a fire cistern, with rock cut channels leading to it. There was a little quarry around. These are other cisterns and cave cisterns on the hill. It is becoming apparent that all those hill-tops surrounding Beit Ras were related to Beit Ras in Roman times, as

Left Side:

burial places, suburbs, etc. There are some/a few painted Byzantine sherds here. No sherds collected. Byzantine mosaics visible.

Tell el-SEIRI ef. ZDPV 49, p.A446 (?)


just another, not steep, ploughed over hill-top, with a few Roman-Byzantine sherds on it. It is in between Beit Ras and [?]. No tombs here.

Ed-DEIRI (49A)

Is Roman-Byzantine, with cisterns and cave cisterns. A completely destroyed site, with fragments of capitals showing how this place has been used as a quarry. A few houses of Beit Ras still visible from here, and below a number of villages to the N and E. There are several small mounds of limestone and basalt blocks left of houses which haven’t been completely destroyed yet. Used as modern graveyard.

Right Side:

Gemanson QEMASON (50)

Another completely destroyed Roman-Byzantine site in a rolling, completely cultivated upland, overlooking el-al. No sherds collected. Some cave cisterns. Arabs have carved away practically all the building stones.

Right Side:

(51) El-KOM (ain phot. desirable) Stevernagel, ZDPV, p.A488.

el-Kom is a long, low, quarter-circular mound, with the approach to fields, facing el-Al and Alm Lokes, and a wadi in between. It overlooks the influence of the Wadi el-Kom and the Wadi Ain Ableh, and the spring Ain Abdeh. On the Wadi Abdeh side, the slopes go down in good broad terraces, still intact, almost to the wadi. The sherds are almost all BA, some Roman-Byz. and perhaps some EI. There was once a wall going around the tell. Some gardens are at its NE end. The rest of the site, including this top is ploughed to wheat.

There are a couple med. Arabic glazed sherds also. Some of the BA painted sherds are like Tell el-Hammah ware on the Yarmuk.

The water of Ain Abdeh pours out of the rock in several strong streams, flowing into a reservoir in the spring cave. At one time, the water was led through a rock cut channel, on the South side of the cave

Left Side:

To gardens beyond it. There was a fig tree of [?] outside of the cave alongside the S side on the wadi bed.

Right Side:

Umm el-Rujam (52) Stevermagel, ZDPV 49, p.A. 488 umm er-rudschum

A small, completely destroyed Roman-Byzantine site on a top of rolling plateau on other side of wadi, with full view of el-Klim [?] several kilometres away. No sherds collected here. Some cisterns here.

July 15, 1942. Tuesday.

(53) Khirbet Umm ‘Amir [?] Stevernagel, ZDPV 49, Umm ‘amir p.A 491

On the hill-top and slope overlooking the Wadi Shellaleh and Tell Osmam from the west. Completely ploughed over. Several caves. Some Roman and Byzantine and med. Arabic sherds. The way from Kherja village led through flat, fertile, upland plateau, with the Wadi Yarmuk and Jebel Sheikh visible to the north, and now the deep Wadi Shellaleh below us to the east. There are Byzantine mosaic stones about the fairly gently, not too steeply sloping ground is ploughed to wheat to the edge of the top of the wadi.

Left Side:

Umm el-Agaib (54) Stevermagel, 2DPV49, p.A491

A completely destroyed Roman-Byzantine site completely ploughed over overlooks Wadi Shellaleh and Tell Asamam. There is a columbanium here on top of the hill and some burial tombs. There are cisterns and other shaft tombs scattered about top of hill. Some mosaic stones lying about.

Ain el-Meyahah

On way down into Wadi Shallalah, we stopped at this good spring, which feeds a large grove of fig and pomegranate trees. It is on West side of Tell es-Senam.

Right Side:

Tell Esnam

tell es- Senam Stevernagel, ZDPV 49, pl. 69 b, p.A489

South half is oriented NNW by SSE with a blockhouse at other end. It is slightly sycle-shaped with inner curve on east side. It overlooks the junction of two wadis near center of east side is small kirbeh and west of South blockhouse is a small birkeh. The stones of the blockhouses are well cut, but weathered now. Near the N end is pact of a column-drum with deutilated ribs, and what may be a cistern near the N end. The sherds are predominantly Roman, with the best sigillate I have yet found. This hill top is separated by a long narrow ridge from the higher or smaller one to NNW of it. Both form a range which rise abruptly out of the Wadi Shellaleh, reminding me of Kh. Janner.

Left Side:

The whole S hill-top seems in Roman Times to have been enveloped within a wall. It is the sort of a high hill top, steeply inaccessible, which should be EI and BA. It seems to me at least one of my sherds found near the south bottom of the hill is BA. The villages of el-Al and Sejhara are visible from here.

The range is [?] by the Wadi Shellaleh. Some terracing in Roman blocks visible on the slopes of the site. The N half of the NNE end of the ridge commands a view to the NW turn of the Wadi Shellaleh, with the fruit and vegetable gardens below the NW end of the hill, on the far, NW side of the wadi. There are some house foundations on the ridge connecting the two hills. The top

Right Side:

Of the hill at the NE end may once have had a tower on it, but the traces are too uncertain to prove anything now.

The tower at the S end of S half is about 16 meters square. The stones are bonded limestone. There are some basalt blocks on the site. The east side of the tower rests on foundations built up from side of hill. The west side is still several courses high.

From predominance of fine sigillate, and drum of pillar, one might think a Roman temple were situated here. The stones in the S tower measure 1.30x.55×50 cm.

The tower at N end of S half may be 13 meters square. The length of South half (including towers) is about 126 meters. The N tower is in poorer condition than Stones. The width of South half is 14 meters approximately.

Left Side:

Stones for the various buildings on mounds were apparently cut directly on mound. One stone which began to be cut is still visible.

Right Side:

el-fakiri Stevernagel, ZDPV 49, p.A.525. [Arabic Script]

Sejeret el-Faqireh


At the confluence of Wadi Shellaleh and Wadi Ain el-Ghazal. It is a high peninsula of land, which extends westward from a high hill in back of it, and which is steeply inaccessible from all sides, except from the high hill from the west. It is partly terraced, and there are traces indicating that it once was walled. The village of Sherabeh is visible immediately above it on the other side of the Wadi. Into the Wadi Shellaleh [?] the waters of Ain el-Ghazal and Ain Bereshta descending the Wadi Ain el-Ghazal. We saw a 10-12 foot waterfall some distance beyond the source of Ain Ghazal. On both sides of the hill of Sejeret el-Faqureh are gardens watered by the water which comes down the Wadi Ain Ghazal and the Wadi Shellaleh. The tree after which Sejeret el-Jaqireh is named, we found cut down- having been cut

Left Side:

Down by people searching for gold. It was a Butm tree. It was cut down a year ago. The site is wildly overgrown with weeds, but yielded a comparatively large number of BA sherds, and perhave one or two EI sherds. On top of the mound now are several piles of jumbled stones. It was an excellent and typical BA site, justifying the rule that wherever there is a strong spring, then there will be found a BA site above it. We also found flint knives there.

Right Side:

July 16, 1942 Wednesday Stevermagel ZDPV 49, p.A523


A completely ploughed over hill top and slopes leading down northward to the spring, which irrigates some gardens. Rock-cutting cisterns and cistern-caves visible. Sherds Roman to med. Arabic. More collected.


On North side of springs is Roman to med. Arabic, with the latter predominant. A long, completely ploughed wide slope leads to a ploughed hill-top.

Left Side:

Stevermagel, ZDPV 49, p.A.535b.

p.A536. 7h Qeweilbeh and Umm el-Amad (58)

A huge Decapolis site on the hills opposite the Wadi and gardens, which still exist to some extent. Besides, the comparatively small gardens fed by the stream, the formerly great Roman site is a mass of ruins, which from year to year become less, as stones are swiped. The amphitheatre on the n.e. side of Umm el-Amad is practically depleted of stones. The hill of Qeeveillah is to the north of it. Both hills are on the West side of the wadi. A great pillared sheet and bridge led across the wadi connecting the east and west hills. It seems likely that the hill of Qewalbeh, which looks like a tremendous tell, may originally have been BA.

Schumacher, Abila of the Decapolis, 1889.

Right Side:

Stevermagel, ZDPV 49, pp. A.539-40


(Rujm el-Ed’am the site guards the fertile lands to the south of it.)

-> A high, fairly small mound, commanding the confluence of Wadi Kleir and Wadi Ain Thor. There are ruins of buildings on it. It may at one time have been walled. The only easy, flat approaches from the south. Most of the sherds are EI, but numerous Roman-Byzantine and some perhaps of BA.

Across the wadi to the east, across Wadi Ain eth-Thor is a large Butm tree, Beetm et-Aafi, which is visible from the village of YUBLA. Terraces lead down to top of wudyan from east, N. and west sides.

July 17, 1942. Thursday

HOM (60) is NW of Yubla. We have been riding three good upland farm country from Yeeble to here. This is a medium sized to small, completely destroyed site, represented by piles of stones. Pottery mainly med.Arabic, also Byzantine. Overlooks Wadi Qaneideh and its confluence with Wadi Beit Halet el-Hom. The wadi is known as Wadi Ain Saba, which is a past of Wadi Qereideh [?].

Left Side:

Immediately North of this site is a large, old olive grove. There are many such groves on the fairly flat hill tops in this region, which is a good area with its fertile uplands and springs. It could be and once was an infinitely better area. The village of Kufi Som is visible as is Yeebla. The slopes of the hill-side leading down to the Wadi Ain Seba are ploughed.

Rujm Ed’am visible from here, the gardens below it being more clearly visible than I saw them yesterday. The slopes of Rujm el-Ed’am are anciently terraced.

To the South from here on the horizon is visible the large Rujn el-Biadh.

(61) BALU ‘YAH of. ZDPV49, p.A541

Immediately west of Horta on the hill-top slightly higher on the east side of the wadi. This is a small, completely destroyed Byz.-med. Arabic site, with olive groves

Right Side:

west of it, and on the uplands around it. From village of Yubla to here, across from Haeta we have been riding through rich upland land, with splendid olive tree groves. There is a cistern or two on the side. One can see the hills of Syria from here. No sherds collected. One large, fairly antique cistern- cave burkeh.

(62) el-HABIS ZDPV 49, pl.82, p.A532 p.

About ¼ of the way up a sheer cliff are visible 4 large tomb openings. The cliff is on the east side of the track, which is on the east side of the small wadi, which empties into the Yarmuk, a kilometer or so west of the railling station of Sejerah on the north side of the Yarmuk. To the very edge of the top of the beginning of the very steep descent down to the Yarmuk, the flat fertile fields and olive groves continue. Below one can see

Left Side:

there are three more caves to the N. of those caves in the same well (over).

Yarmuk with its comparatively wide stream of water. Across the Wadi Yarmuk one looks at the uplands of Syria, and into the distance the Jebel esh-Sheikh +

(63) Tell HALIYEH chirbet ahilja – ZDPV 49, p.A.532.

On the W side of the Wadi Habis, three roses are an isolated knob called Tell Haliyeh. Immediately N of it, before the descent to it begins we found a flint knife.

The high hill is between the South edge of the top of the Wadi Yarmuk and the descent to the Yarmuk. It is on a ridge oriented NNW by SSE. On top of the pinnacle with a small tower and perhaps several other buildings. Small quantity of Roman and Byzantine pottery, also on top edge of South plateau, where we found a flint knife. This site commands a fine view of the Yarmuk east of Sejerah

Right Side:

station for perhaps 12 miles.

There are some cut limestone blocks of a small police-post (Roman-Byzantine) on top of pinnacle and some modern graves. The small Wadi HALIYEH has oak trees growing in it.

On the South side of the hill and at the bottom and on sides of hill leading to top of main plateau on S. side of Wadi HALIYEH are rock cut tombs.

The sides of the hills near the Wadi Yarmuk, when not planted to olive trees, seem originally to have been covered with oak trees.


Tell Abu el-Anatir

NNW of the village of Agraba, about half way down the oak studded slopes leading to the Yarmuk river, is the natural hill of Tell Abu el-Anater. Its sides and top are awarded [?] with oak.

Left Side:

Trees of a scrub growth. I found one Byzantine sherd. The site commands a good view of the Yarmuk river in both directions, with a bridge crossing the stream immediately below us to the NE. Some of the areas from the top of the plateau are fairly level. There the trees are cut down and wheat is planted.

The fact that much of this area was heavily wooded in ancient times, particularly on the hillsides, coupled with the fact that there are many small villages here, many of which originally have been on anciently occupied sites, may explain the comparative paucity of particularly EI sites, which seems to have revealed itself this far.

Thus far, in this north country, this is a definte difference between EI pottery in Southern Transjordan and that of Northern Transjordan, the latter of which is more related to EI in Palestine than that of Southern Transjordan is.

Right Side:


July 18, 1942 Stevernagel, ZDPV 49, p.A.542 Friday.


A small flat hill-top, oriented NW by SE and extending in a peninsula tongue NW from land behind it. It took a 40 minute scramble, frequently on hands and knees from Agraba to here, down and up, across the Wadi Agrabah. It is a tiny Roman-Byzantine site, with caves and groves, some shafts cut into the rock. Goats evidently shelter here. Ain so-Sraibah Halet el-Flin [?] is immediately above it to the SE. The hillsides of this peninsula whose top is about half the height of the top of the slopes of Wadi Agrabah, as those slopes, are wooded with scrub oak, and must at one time have been heavily wooded. A few scraps of Roman-Byzantine pottery found.

Left Side:

It took us 40 minutes from Agrabah to Ezrabah and 50 minutes from Qeralah to the site near Sacham, NE of it on the east side of the Wadi Haseem.

Kh. El-Baba (66) [Arabic script}

ZDPV 49, p.A.543

This is a small, completely destroyed Byzantine, med. Arabic site overlooking the confluence of the Wadi Hasan and the Wadi Halet of Ain. The village top of Sachem is immediately across the wadi to the SW. Climbing a steep path up the ridge leading to the top of the S side of the Wadi Agrabah, we reached the fertile plateau land again, with its thick, rich olive groves. We sent a boy back to Agrabah to have the horses and donkey brought way around by Kufi Sum to Sachem. Then the edge of the plateau to this small site, which is oriented approximately NS. I saw Roman-Byzantine and a few med. Arabic sherds in the fields. On the rocky slopes of the W side of Wadi Hasun may be near burial tomb. There are some scrub

Right Side:

oak trees about. The N side of the Yarmuk is visible from here. The Wadi is called Wadi Hasbun on the map, but the people of Sachem claim it is a mistake.

(67) SAHEM

ZDPV 49, p. A542

A fair sized village on a hill-top on a central rise in the village, overlooking the good spring in the wadi below it to the NE, are the remains of a fairly large flint block building, which certainly looks pre-Roman, and to judge from the samples of similar buildings in places like Kh. Madhmar in the Beqiah would seem to be EI. This village depends almost completely on the spring, although a couple of cisterns have been dug here. All of the other buildings in this place are made of limestone blocks. The amount flint black building is being enclosed, built over, and gradually pulled down. The only reason it has put completely disappeared is because the flint blocks are harder to work than limestone which is available.

Left Side:

In front of the NW corner of ancient flint building in a plain Byzantine mosaic floor in round [?].

The spring from which the people of Sachem got their water is enclosed in a spring-house at the bottom of the hill. At one time it came out higher and was much stronger we hear. The women of the village still haul water in the same fashion as they did thousands of years ago in skins. I am particularly interested in this town, because it contains remains of an early EI fortress, such as must have existed in many of these towns. The flint blocks are from two meters long about 40 centimeters thick, and about 50-60 centimeters wide. At the NW corner there seemed to be a stage on which the corner rested.

The olive tree groves seen in this area are descendants probably from ancient Roman and earlier groves. Some ancient, stone cut presses are still visible around here. In most places in Transjordan all that is left are the old presses, with the trees gone, and the earth which they grew in also gone.

Right Side:

Tell el-Hasum ZDPV 49, p.A.546 [Arabic script]


A large isolated hill top, bending north from above the Yarmuk to South and West. The north end is the highest. There are three stages of levels to the west end. At both ends were towers, and ruins (foundations, rubble) of numerous buildings were visible. There was at least one large cistern on top, and perhaps others covered by fellow stones, but below of course is the perennial stream of the Yarmuk. At the NE end of the hill, just where the ascent to it begins, on a more or less level space are additional ruins of buildings. The modern road which passes this place must be almost exactly on the site of the Roman road. This road commands a magnificent view of the west stretch of the Yarmuk, with the hills of northern Palestine visible beyond.

The railway below its north end on the Syrian side apparently goes through a tunnel on its way eastward. An unusually

Left Side:

large amount of tena [?] sigillate was found here, as on Tell Habiyeh. We came here from Sachem. On the fairly level uplands leading northwards from Sachem were olive tree groves. When the descent began, oak trees took their place. Some of those oak trees on this site have grown up in the foundations of the hard limestone blocks.

This site is separated from the mainland by a small wadi north of it. The rock is “geitian.” We saw an olive sediment basin there. It may be in Roman times the slopes of the hill were cultivated. The little wadi South of it, which separates it from the mainland is cultivated.


(69) ZDPV 49, p.A544

A dirty spring, which was enclosed in Roman times, and still flows pretty strongly. The hillside above it

Right Side:

To the west is ploughed and overgrown with trees; the oak groves around the spring are very old, and undoubtedly never want back to Roman times. The tracks are up hill from Kufi Lahya to SAHM, with some of the thickest olive trees on the way that I have ever seen. The track leads upward then to the Tarik amalayeh leading from Sahem to to Tell HUSN, to el-MEKHEIBEH July 19, 1942 Sunday.

SAMAR – country seat, so to speak. It is a Kurdish village, with fields remarkably well kept, comparatively speaking. They have their own mill here. There are some Roman rock cuttings visible.

(70) Rujm el-Qadi of ZDPV 49, p.A.543.

ZDPV 49, p.A543 Ain el-hab is below us to the NE. Kh. El-Biashu is across the wadi on top of a hill to the NE. It is about due north of the spring. This site is on a ridge west of Wadi Ain el-Trab, which it overlooks. The ridge runs east-west.

Left Side:

To the east, its slopes descend in broad stages to nearly the bottom of the Wadi Ain et-Trab. These stages must have been anciently terraced. The ridge is covered with stones, some of which may be field stones, and others of which may be remains of BA buildings. South of the ridge is a fairly flat area, rising towards the west, descending towards the south and rising to the east. It is all under cultivation. The sherds were hard to find, but careful search yielded a considerable quantity of BA, including a ledge-handle, and some Byzantine ware. On the way up here we passed Ain Umm el Lejya at the bottom of a large hill.

Right Side:

Rujm Bladh chirbet el-bajad ZDPV 49, p.A543


Biadh [Arabic script]

A formerly walled stage on highest part of mound, oriented east-west. On it are several rujm. This stage may be nothing more than terracing. Most of the EI sherds were found up on this highest part, although BA sherds were found also up here. This active site is ploughed over, including the high stage. Most of the sherds on this large site are BA, quite a few EI, and some Roman-Byz. The EI site was built on the BA. The Yarmuk divide and Kufi Sum are visible from here. The police post of Menera is visible to the WSW. The land is terraced down to the spring to the SSW, immediately below here. This is a very large site. Across the wadi on the hill top to the SSW, Rujm el-Qadi is visible. The sides of the stage are highest on the west and north sides. At the NW corner the stage is about 4 meters above level of terrace below it

Left Side:

Rujm el-Biadh stands out prominently on the landscape. The west side of the stage is about 80 meters long. It is all probably a terrace wall.

Kh. Zereig


A large, completely ruined Roman to med. Arabic site, completely destroyed on slopes of top of hill WWN of Rujm Biadh. Large quantities of pottery on these roads. Part of the ancient site has been turned into a vineyard. Mosaid squares lying about. There are glazed and painted covered med-Arabic sherds.

Ain et Trab pours out of a rock cut channel sunk into the wall on the east side of the wadi.

Right Side:

(73) KOM SAMA of ZDPV 49, p. A. 494

The spring is called Ain Sama, Ain Jemal is to the Southeast connected with the mainland by a broad ridge. Otherwise completely isolated, has a magnificent position. Overlooks Sama village to the WSW. The spring is below it to the NNE. The slopes of the hill are ploughed almost from the bottom to the very top, on which are piles of stones. There are large quantities of EI sherds, and a small number of Byzantine sherds. No painted ware found, although there seems to be some furnished ware. On the NE side is a large cave cistern, whose opening looks as if it had been out in Byzantine times. The spring immediately below here was easily accessible. The police post of Menara is visible from here. This place occupies a very prominent position over top of the hill. The slopes of the hill were apparently anciently terraced, and have then retrieved their soil. The soil on the sides

Left Side:

of the hill across the wadi in which the spring is situated at the bottom is almost completely gone. The spring is called Ain Sama and is in the Wadi Sama. The lower west slopes of the hill are planted to grapes and fruit trees of various kinds. It obviously played anciently the role that the village of SAMA played today.

Left Side:

of the hill across the wadi in which the spring is situated at the bottom is almost completely gone. The spring is called Ain Sama and is in the Wadi Sama. The lower west slopes of the hill are planted.

Left Side:

III: 1. Hakima granite door from Beit Ras“

V. 1. looking NW at el-Fekirah before Ohebebeh [?}

2. Looking north at Rujm el-Edam in lands of Kufi Som.

3. looking NE at Tell Hafiyeh overlooking Yarmuk.

4. Looking NW at Yarmuk from Tell Abu.

5. Skins of water at Ain Sahem.

6. Looking West at Tell Husum.

7-9. Looking at EI fortress in Sahem from West the corner shows the NW corner. Looking WSW at Tell el-Qadi. Kom Same looking NNW.

Left Side:

Of the hill across the wadi in which the spring is situated at the bottom is almost completely gone. The spring is called Ain Sama and is the Wadi Sama. The lower west slopes of the hill are planted.

III. 1. Hakima granite door from Beit Ras




[Greek script]

5. Basalt block above entrance to old mosque.

6. Photographs of inscription in Beit Ras.

Right Side:

IV: photograph in Beit Kreim el-Hasan.

2-3 photograph of underground reservoir of Beit Ras.

4. looking at Beit Ras, NW from el-Meidan.

5. Looking NW.

6. Byzantine church rock showing on W lower side of el-Meidan,

7. Birkeh on top of Tell Kefat of AMAWI.

8. Columbanium at Umm el-Agaib, looking South from ridge between two halves

9-10. looking SSW

11. Looking at S end of N half of Tell Conan, from ridge between 2 halves looking NNE.

12. [?] of pillar at Eeran.


Oct. 31, 1942


129 AJLUN                                                                                        zdpv 48, PP. A 309 f

In front of the Weli called Weli Ba’ash, the hillside is covered with masses of iron-ore slag. It is just above the spring. More of the slag is said to be on the castle hill-top.                         KAL’AT ER-RABAD f. Repost by Johns


On road between Ajlum and Anyarah we saw quantities of iron slag.

ZDPV 49, p. A. 313


130 SALUS     (see JERASH map)

On top of a hill, whose fairly steep slopes, as all the region are given over to vineyards. The predominant sherds are med. Arabic. On the very top of the hill are remains of room and house foundations and walls of roughly cut blocks. Anjarah and Ajlum and the castle visible from here. This is the spring of Salus below here, a fairly strong one. The areas not given over to vineyards are wooded. The trees have sprung up among the ruins. There are very numerous Byz. and med. Arabic sherds lying about in the adjacent fields.

130a Kh. Wadi Den    (see Jerash map)

About 200 metres immediately across a slight dip is Kh. Wadi Deir. It is really only a few mere bldgs. belonging to

the site. It is to the e, e.n.e. On it are these visible rock cut burial shafts.

131 Kh. Hamid                       (see Herash map)

Less than a kil. away to the SW on the hill-top of a similar hill is a similar site, with same sherds, only here the sherds were predominantly Roman-Byz found several pieces of sigillah. (No sherds kept). On the N.E, e.n.e. side across a small Wadi are some quarries and shafts. Anjau[?] is to the W-WSW up this site, about 1 ½ kilometers away. The castle is to the NW, towering as its hill top. McLean’s hospital visible from here which was the part of Ajlus [?] visible from SALUS. The entire hill-top here is planted to vines. A few terrace(?) [sic] walls of cut stones visible on top.

132 SHEMSIN           (see JERASH map)

On a high wooded hill, the lower slopes of which are planted to vines. Terrace walls and foundations of houses on top, and numerous shaft tombs. Large quantities of Byzantine (Roman sherds, and some med. Arabic shards). This whole country side could not

Have been thickly inhabited in BA and BI times because of thickness of forests.

131B MAR ELIAS                             P. a327, ZDPV 48

chirbet mar eljas

A fairly high, isolated hill, rising above the terraced, and ploughed, very strong fields below it, which in turn rise to wooded heights all around it except on the West side, where the hills fall away to the Ghor, which is visible from here, with the silver thread of the Jordan in it much of Palestine is visible from here, as is Mt. Herman. The spirit of Nabi Elias is still venerated here, which safeguards a small grove of scrub oak from being cut down. There is a tremendous cistern on top, and the ruins of some buildings, including a church. There are several other cisterns on the slopes and top, perhaps more.

A wild looking, long haired shepherd boy, with long shepherd’s crook drove his goats onto top of hill as we ate lunch there.

MAR ELIAS (cont)

On top are visible a Byzantine capital pillar drums and bases, and five mosaic squares, also courser ones. There is a cistern in the church complex.

The Ghor of Beisan is visible from here.

The top is a mass of separated mosaic squares of small and large size, white and red small ones.

The sherds are mostly Byzantine.

Immediately below this hill top, which was occupied mostly by the church, on a knoll across a small intervening valley is LESTEB, where there was a small Byz. village. It is W-NW from here, about ½ kil. away.

The cistern on the NW side of the top, by the grove of oak trees, is tremendous. It is still cemented. Near it is the stone cover with opening through which the water was drawn and smaller opening which allowed the water to run in.

Ain Khreigia s. s.e. of Jebil Hovu[?] Ifla[?]


numerous Nab-Persian sherds on ground

Ain Buweirdah

Ain Tellu[?]

Ain Khre[?]

Jebal Ifdan




Um edh-Dhabun near beg. Of Wadi of Ain Ifdan. Una edn.


Ain Beweirdeh (s. of Jebal Ifdam)

1-7       Sheikh Sweilur[?] Abu Rumsmar of the Saidiyes one of the 3 sheikhs of the Palestine Saidiyin

with Sheikh Audeh ibn Jad

8-11. Jebel H. Ifdan

Audeh Ali of the Bem Atiyah Virlu[?] at Gharandal. Sweiforn[?] eh-Moyis of Suidrayu[?] Wadi Ifdan below KH. Hamn Ifdan looking NW.


 Screen shot 2015-04-23 at 12.00.02 PMNov. 22, 1942

HM. Foot, Colin Bertram who is head of the Palestine Fisheries, Miss Bryant, the daughter of Abu George Bryant, and I left Amman this morning at 6:40 A.M. We drove in the rattling, little, gasoline engined trolley car, that looks as if it had been taken out of the cartoons. However, it can do some 50 miles an hour or so on a straight-a-way. By 10:40 A.M., in 4 hours, we had reached Mean, where deposited Miss Bryant who lives there with her father: He is a former Palestine Police Officer, who is in charge of the labor on the new road from Negeb Shtar to Aqabah. A big man, no longer young, with tremendous stomach, hearty laugh, and hard eyes. His wife is an Italian. His daughter speaks English, Arabic, Italian, and French. We then rode on to the end station of Nageb Shtar, where Alan George Bryant’s car awaited us, and brought us to the constriction center immediately before the half of Kh. Nageb Shtar. This path has been destroyed in the construction work, and it is fortunate that I planned it and collected photos there before hand. We arrived at Nageb Johtar at 11:40 A.M. , and a few members later at the construction camp, we had lunch together with Alan George and Major Noble who is in charge of the road construction now. Major Noble then drove us to Aqabah in his car. We left at 1:30 P.M., and arrived at 3 P.M. It has been raining hard for the last three days in the Jerusalem and Amman districts. There has been no rain in Kerak, however and same in the Wadi Hismeh. The desert south of Amman is already beginning to get green with the early rains, and the animals ought to have a good year. We saw a gazelle Today, as we rattled towards Maan.

Aqabah is full of people. What interested me particularly were the numerous Saudi Arabs who have come up the gulf in their dugout canoes. There were also two approximately fifteen ton sail boats from Yembo and Wujha which had brought charcoal and dried fish to Agabah. It is said that some of the boats, the larger sail boats, and the smaller dugouts are away from home, sailing the length of the gulf for a year at a time. One is reminded of the time of three years reported in the Bible to have been taken by Solomon’s ships on their round trip from Ezion-geber to Ophir and back.

I was interested to note that the sailing vessels brought charcoal with them. Perhaps similar vessels brought some of the charcoal in ancient times which helped fire Solomon’s smelters.

There was a modern freighter anchored off shore today, discharging on to the small pier south of Aqabah. The main pier has a protecting sea wall, and tall cement, electric light, standards up, it seems to be almost complete. A southerly gale did a little damage to its surface the other day, but that is easily repaired.

Dredging operations are going on in the basin created by the main pier, and at its entrance on the west side. I am afraid that such dredging will have to be paramount to prevent the entrance to the basin from being salted up.

Captain Bell of the Royal Arab Legion blew in this evening,, having completed a tour along the west side of the Wadi Sinham. This west side is Transjordan. He is another of these splendid Englishmen, something of the Lawrence [?] type, who take to the Arabic language and Arabic ways like a duck to water. I had heard of him before, and he apparently of me. He is small, slight, almost effeminate in appearance, with a high voice, but obviously one of those chaps with will of iron, sharp minds, and clear purposes. Having had fairly much experience in the last decade and more, I began to understand how with representations like Lawrence, Allenby, Wavell, Glubb, Kirkbride, Foot and Bell, they are able to look after and understand the interests of their country.

We are going to take advantage of the full room tonight, and ride all through the night, making for Gharandel, some 40 miles away. The camels are being loaded now. Foot and I are going, accompanied by Sheik Audeh ibn Jad of the Injadat Arabs. Some people say that these Injadat Arabs are descendants of the Tribe of God. He is a tiny, middle-aged man, who is much respected in this area.

Bertram left shortly after we arrived here this afternoon for Mashrash. His fisheries’ launch is there, and he is going down in it to Dohahab, about 70 miles south on the Sinai side, where he says there is a protected anchorage and good fishing. He is experimenting with different ways of catching and preserving fish here for the Palestine market.

In the last two days, after, coming back from Palestine on Friday with the Kirkbrides who had who had stayed with me there, I put up at Foot’s place in Amman. It was fun breezing past both the Palestine and Transjordan passport controls at Allenby bridge in Kirkbride’s car, without showing my passport. The only hitch is that I can’t return to Palestine by any other route other than the one I expect to follow in the past few days, because I would have to do a lot of explaining as to how I left the country without having my passport stamped-going through the whole ordeal, I shall simply be back in

Palestine, when I get to the south end of the Dead Sea, where Foot and I are to be entertained by Mr. Novomuphy’s [?] representatives at the Potash works there.

Foot, P. Livingston, Major Le Gallais, Captain Bell, and Jennifer Foot, were in an establishment of their own in the house that Peake Pasha used to live in. He had some fine granite Roman columns set up in the garden. The house was being used as a bachelor settlement till Foot’s sister, Jenifer, joined it.

Livingston is the Director of Customs in T.J., Major le Galleis is a Jersey islander, and is in the Arab League now, I believe, seconded from the RAF. He flew in the last war. He had just a house build in Jersey Island when the Germans came. His wife got away in time. He and his son were already away.

Yesterday morning, I called I called on George F. Walpole, Director of Loans and Savings, and got a bunch of new maps from him. He would not let me pay for them.

Monday, Nov. 23 1942

At 6 o’clock this afternoon, shortly after sunset, we arrived at Gharandel. Glubb has had a new police post constructed here, of the type customary throughout T.J. When I was here in 1934, there was only a small hut. This comparatively elaborate affair surprised me much, and pleased me no little. Foot, as the Assistant British Resident, who is charged also with the distribution of seed wheat to the tribes, on the condition that if possible they return it in kind next year, was very heartily received by the company of “Glubb’s Girls” [?]ering about

I shone too by reflected glory, as his companion.  A dozen, who are stationed here in addition to a wireless operator. Among them is included Shiekh Sabaneh [?] ibn Afran of the T.J. Saidijin, who has been put into the Arab Leagion so that the gov’t could give him a pension even though he does no work. The T.J. Saidiyin[?] section is the smallest one. There are several larger sections on the Palestine side.

Bitter coffee and sweet tea were served immediately. Then to our amazement, dinner was brought in almost immediately. The police-post here had been informed by wireless that we were coming, and we had arrived at the expected time. Dinner consisted of a very tender young goat, and bread. At first we and our companions ate. I noticed a polite form that I should have known previously, but hadn’t paid attention to before. I ate a certain amount and then set back. Foot ate more and longer and the others finished before him. They did not draw back, however, but left their hands stretched out over the large food-dish, as if they were still eating, so that he would feel he was eating alone. It was really exquisite politeness.

We have a long ride, especially for me who hasn’t ridden a camel since 1934, when I came down the length of the Wadi Arabad from north to south. It was full moon last night. We were the guests of Abdul [?] Majid [?] Adueen [?], the Mudir [N?] of Aqabah, who gave us a good fish and rice dinner. Meanwhile, the camels had been loaded. There were five camels for the five who made up the partly, which included Foot, myself, Sheik Auduh bin Jad, his brother Metlak [?], and a guard [?] from Aqabah named Abdul Fatah Na’amami. In as much as we wanted to reach Gharandel tonight, which is some 70 kms or more from Agabah

We decided to ride through part of the night. We rode steadily for five hours, leaving at 8 P.M. and stopping at 1 A.M.  in the Wadi Kertaba[?], met far from Mene’yah[?] in the west side. It was a wonderful night, cold and clear, with the moon high and bright, and the evening stars rising over the Edomite hills, and mounting westward in the skies overhead.

We had breakfast at 5:30 this morning in Amman so that it was a long day before we stopped in the Wadi Arabah. We had covered more than 20 kms. before we stopped, but those 20 kms. broke the longest leg of our trip. When we stopped at 1, despite the fact that we had had a big supper at 8 P.M., we were all hungry. So we opened some soup tins and had some hot soup with bread, and tea, before turning in. We woke up at sunrise, had some tea, and then moved on.

During the night we had passed a small camel caravan bringing charcoal from the Edomite hills. It had been brought from around the road, Daraba[?], and was made of acacia wood. That interested me, as much as the news the previous afternoon that charcoal had been brought from Wyha[?] and Yenbo to Agabah by boat. These boats had also brought salt and native tents. Both facts show in microcosm the type of trade that converged on Aqabah in ancient times, and brought charcoal for Solomon’s furnaces.

Foot is doing this trip because he wanted to examine the east side of the Wadi el-Arabah to see if a road could be run on that side. I want to see the entire east side of the Wadi el Arabah, parts of which I did not see, when I made my first trip, because we were constantly criss-crossing from one side to another navigating ancient sites. I have since then traveled several times along the western side by the poor road on the Palestinian side, but had never seen the entire east side.

We rode by Bin Jebeal which is simply a hole in the ground, and then by Bin Taba, where half a dozen poor untended palm trees are growing in a sabkha area. The Sabkha Taba comes close to the scree at the bottom of the hills on the east side, but a road could come through on firm ground. We stopped for lunch in the Wadi Turbon in the al Hashash area. We stopped at about 12 P.M and went on at about1:30 P.M., 2 passed there interesting Red Sand Hills in the east side, which stand out redly among the gray and brown hills among which they rise. From that point on, the sand dunes and [?] would make a railway line difficult. Especially the latter, without much expensive bridging of the w[?] . All told we did about 70 kms. one day, — no [?] trip.

Tuesday, Nov. 24, 1942

We slept well last night in the police-post, although I had to get up several times to drive out the cats that had gotten into our food sacks. Finally, I was compelled to rearrange the food bags, so that they couldn’t get at them. We are camped tonight in a little wadi, about half-way between Ain{?] Jaiyech[?] and the and the Jabal[?] Harum[?] Ifdam[?], in which I had previously found some of Solomon’s copper mines. We did a march of 8 hours today, not counting times out for lunch, and covered about 40 kilometres. When we passed the area facing Jalbil Harum, we could see this landmark for about several hours, with its small white weli, glistening on the top of it. Nearby was the Jabil Taijilch[?], upon which, I am told, the Howeitat Arabs, in times of trouble, build bonfires visable in Beersheba, as a signal that their friends there come to their aid, to the al-Azarus[?] and the Tarabin. This used to happen 70 years ago.

We saw a large camel caravan today leaving from Ain Taiylah, or rather that had passed or camped at Ain Taiyibah and were on their way to Palestine.

We saw 3 gazelles today. Our accompanying friends chased the 2 gazelles we saw on the Sahal Saidiyin (all the Wadi Muse is with the Howeitat)

Which is a great, flat ridge, covered with small, black flint stones, on which the Arab Legion car tracks ane clearly visable today, although made some 6 years ago.

Mohammad of the Injadat and Aran[?] of the Jazi[?] Howeitat were the sheikhs who may have built the bonfires.


I was happy to see that the gazelles got out of range, before the Jindi could really get his gun from off his rear pommel of the saddle.

I have been riding a magnificent big white beast of a camel all day long.

On the Ja[?] Saidiyim[?] we saw a number of well-like holes, some empty, and others filled in and covered over, which was used as a storage place for wheat. The pit is covered in [?] rather with straw (tibn), the wheat poured in, covered with tibn, and then covered with dirt. It is said that the wheat can last for several years that way.

Camped in the little wadi, one of the many that cut into the expanse of the major Wadi al-Arabah, was very pleasant last night. We made our beds on the sand flows of the wadi. The Arab companions set for some time around the fire chewing the rag, while we got into our sleeping bags. The moon had come up while we were eating supper, and a great big ring formed around it, whose promise of possible rain seems to be borne out by the cloud formations this morning. The camels came in to be fed, and sat all night in a semi-circle near us chewing their cud. The outside world and its woes were far away.

Our way led us to Ain Bewuideh, at the approach to which were Nabataean-Roman sherds which were visable on the ground. There is a considerable flow of water there. The camels were watered, and we filled our water bags.


I photographed Shekh Sueibin Abu Rummon, whom we found then, with his dog, tending a herd of camels which was grazing nearby. There was also a younger man herding them. Sheikh Sueibin Abu Rummon is a rather decrepit looking, semi-blind, dark featured chap, who is one of three sheikhs of the Palestine Saudiyin.

We saw a young gazelle this morning, and during the last four days have scared up several hares. We have also seen fairly numerous sand-grouse.

At Ain Khreigiyah there were numerous Nabatean sherds, although no ruins of bldgs visible. A few palm trees and shrubs marked the coming up of water. We passed Ain Fu’arah to the n. w. of Ain Beweirdih[?] where there was a similar amount of green. Then we came to Ain Kheigiyah. Ain Beweirdih[?] which preceeded these three is the largest of them all with a small number of palms.

We have since then passed alongside the Jabal Ifdan, halting near the north end of the west range. We shall not go to the range which is Kh. Nahas. We are heading for the Dahal[?] entrance.

We camped this evening near Ain Sulainxia[?], after having done in all an 8 ½ hour marching day. This afternoon we came to the spring Ain Afdan in in the Wadi Ifdan. It just suddenly bubbles up out of the sand, and after a few metres, develops into a fairly strong stream, which runs through the Wadi Ifdan. It then disappears again into the ground after running about half a kilometer at least. About a kil. before we came to the rise of the Kh Ham. Ifdan.


dominating the spring we came in the northern tip of the Jabil Hann Ifdan to a considerable area in which were very numerous fragments of slag, and with them clean fragments of EI pottery, which I gave to Foot. Before arriving at this point, about a kil. farther removed we had seen slag in the lower stretches of the Jebal Hamm Ifdan.

[?] About a kil. N.W. of Ain Ifdan near the beg. of a small Wadi which empties into the Wadi Ifdan, was a considerable site, with remnants of built wells on the south side of the small wadi. From there we mounted a rise, below which stretched a grand vista. We descended, and passed thru the Wadi Gheueibah, on the west side of which we saw outcroppings of a blackest (iron containing) stone. We camped near Ain Suleinauiyuh[?.

There is a road which leads down the Wadi Dahal, then across the Road Suleimaneh to Ain Hoeb, and from there to Kurnub up into the [?] and up the Medra and Nagb Ghaut to Kurtilla[?]. The springs of Huneil and Ghawabah are in the hills.

Nov. 26, 1942

From south of Wadi Dahal ¼ kil.

8:25-8:45 AM

Narrows at point of spring which bubbles out on N. side of wadi. Then Wadi widens, and bends down from S to north-

It is a small square police-post with a few common Roman-Byzantine shards, and a grave (?) on the north side, guarding its spring and the first big bend in the Wadi Dahal as one ascends from the Arab eastward. It is about 3 metres square on the inside with walls about 2 metres thick, of hard limestone. It is set on top of a small pinnacle, with 2 small wadiyan on the west and the east sides passing it going down very steeply to the Wadi Dahal. The others are sloped, with some chinks between them. The stones are well cut and best preserved on the east side. It is 3 ½ sticks ( ) [sic] square.

2 Nov. 26

The Bosiah area must have depended on this Dabal route to get to Palestine.

Spring no. 2. (50 minutes marking time from spring) This spring is on S side of the Wadi.

Spring 3. Ten minutes east of no. 2.

A few minutes walk east of it, on face of red-[?] cliff are numerous wasins[?] at height above reach of a man today.

Also wasm[?] signs on north side of cliff.

3. Nov. 26.


We are 35 minutes east of last spring and at bottom of Mustajala pass in the Wadi Dahal. The wadi makes a big bend here from north to south. On the steep east side, on top, are the remains of a rudely built six or 7 room site, much disturbed; The sherds run from a few Byz. to med. Arabic. I should think that the present structures may represent the remains of a Turkish police post built on previous, or over the site of a previous med. Arabic post, which in turn was built over a small Byz. post (possibly Roman). The water for this garrison could have been fetched from the last spring we passed or from another 2 miles farther up the wadi.

We have passed several families going down into the Ghor from Busenicah. Foot tells me that he saw a 100 camel caravan from Medincela here in the Wadi Dahal going to Beersheba.

4, Nov. 26, 1942

1.) Went with Foot into Wad Dahal, visited 2 sites, and returned to entrance of Wadi Dahal where Audeh and Audeh Ali were waiting for us. We had ridden there an hour’s ride the morning from our camping place last night. Suweilen went with us into Wadi Dahal.

2) We met quite a few people going from Busaucah to spend the winter In the Ghor. They went thru[?] the Wadi Dahal.

3) We could see from entrance of Wadi Dahal and later also from et-Taleh across the Wadi Arabah to the big tree of Ain Hosb, – with a large sand belt in between.

4) Saw 4 antelope climbing hill back of et-Telah. Damn soldier fired at one, but they all escaped.

5) Rode to at Telah, and then at trot to half way to escarpment

 Screen shot 2015-04-23 at 12.03.00 PM5. Nov. 27


  1. Breakfast bet. et-Talah and escarpment.

Nov. 27. Woke up this morning to find we had a guest from Beersheba looking for a lost camel. We have been looking over our own herd recently.

Floes on us like air-craft carriers.

On top of edge of spur on east side of Wadi Kapnesnah[?] is mound. The wadi has a considerable stream in it.

On N. edge of spur pointing north into level, green-brush stretch at bottom of escarpment. This large sized dest. post, commanding entrance to wadi Khnezuch, is the one I had previously visited, but failed to recognize from air photo.

A327, ZDPV 48.



A small church at SE corner, with large pillar drums lying about , inside and outside of it and a cistern in front of it. There are large quantities of med. Arab painted and glazed sherds here, and also numerous Byzantine sherds.

There must be ruins of 120 or 150 stone houses on hillock at bottom of which church is located. There are numerous cisterns about.

The church is oriented appropriately north-south.

There are regular streets visible. Those strongly built stone villages, many of them with their own laboriously cut, rock cisterns in individual houses, were probably [?] even in medieval Arabic period.

Again, the fact impresses itself on me, that except in places along Wadi Zerqa, [?] Jebel Ajlun, with few exceptions such as Mehna, were little occupied in BA and EI times, because of thickness of forests.

Regular streets visible in this village.

6. Nov 27

We came down a steep, sandy descent to bottom of escarpment on level with Wadi Kahneijnah[?]. The top of the escarpment had numerous Byz. and some Rom. and Nab. sherds on it. The [?] of the escarpment is fairly flat and a [?] of not bad [?] flat surface.

[V: 2-9 Kh. Khanzuh-lk

10-12 escarpment lk. s.w.

Wadi Jefilb-


Much water- cultivation over huge area-

Thick with sherds.

7. Nov. 27

Arrived at Safi at about 12 noon. Had tea, saw Audeh off on his return trip. A small truck from Potash Co. happened to be there and brought us to camp in front of Jalal Usdam at 1:15 P.M.

The actual traveling times from Aqabah to Safi is 3 1/2 days, and another day for the Wady Dofal trip.

Mr. Golem, Mr. de Lew, and Mr. Gur-Aryah[?] took Foot and me to pt. opposite Lisan where there is a Roman fort, and then to a cave in Jebal Usdum where there are some salt stalactites, and an open chimney

The sunset on the hills on east side of Dead Sea was wonderful .

The red sands this morning below escarpment.

Nov. 28

Left at 7:45 A.M. on boat especially sent down for us.

Around 3:30 P.M. at north end.

  1. Trolley at Nagb lobby[?]
  2. “ “ “ “
  3. al-Kaitaba (near Manyyah)[?]
  4. Wadi Turlan-preparing for lunch
  5. Audah ibn Jad


Abdul Fatah Na’amana

  1. Foot
  2. Gharandel


1-5 Jabal Arurs[?]


Screen shot 2015-05-07 at 3.08.13 PMDec. 1, 1942.                                       Tabkat Fakil                                        135-168

Sterernyel{?], 2 DPV 49, pp. A398-404.

Henry Iliffe, Rashid Hamid, N.G. walked in hour in a half from Sheikh Jisr Hussein.

Great quantities of Roman, including a lot of sigillata, Byz. and med. glazed and painted Arabic sherds. Nothing which could be designated as ______, although there must have been. The powerful springs bubble up strongly from both sides of the wadi, pouring out of underground channels. A very M____[?] ______ at site today. The site built on both sides, but usually on N. side.

See PEQ Jan. 1934

John Richmond: Kh. Fahil, pp. 18-31

Below Tall el-Husn, on S. side of Wadi Jirim[?] al Moz, is a deposit of 2 metres thick silt, washed down from sides and top of Tall el-Husn. A ______ we found there showed it to be full of Roman and Byz. and some med. Arabic sherds. The area below the temple filled with similar sherds.

It is possible that the sherds which were thought previously to be BA were really Arabic, as I have decided the sherds I found to dry on sides of spring are.

The walls on N. side of spring are probably Arabic, not, as one might surmise from Richmond’s report Roman. At least they are Arabic in present state.

I photographed several fragments of Corinthian capitals

Dec. 7, 1942

Tell Abu Qaml 137 = Manshiyeh 2D P 49, p. A 549

Police post on top of small tell overlooking Jordan. Large numbers of Roman, Byz., and med. Arabic sherds. It is now in grounds of IPC Jordan Valley Relief Station. Said Iskander Ammoun is the overseer.

Noon. We are sitting at junction of Wadi Arab and Jordan. The water of the Wadi Arab, sort of creamy color, is rushing Jordan [?] so strongly, that it is too wide to jump across. We are waiting for the horses we have ordered to come and carry us across. Those that Rashid had ready at Shunah (near Jisn Miyumiah this morning), were all of a sudden taken back by their owner last night.

137      2DPV 49, p. A 549

Tell Sunwar[?] on N. Side of Wadi Arab and north of Tell Abu Gamul (Tell Menshiyah), is about ½ kil. N. of Tell Abu Gamal. A very few med. Arab sherds some flints on it. It is a small path, rather high knoll, commanding as does Tell Abu Gamal the plain but into the Jordan and between it, and the hills to the east of it. Between here and the hills to the east is a good sized, fertile plain. Ploughing is going on among the Arabs now.

Asasiyah or Tell Abu Basah               139. 138

2 DPV 49, p. A 549

Another mound, or rather several natural mounds together, marked by remains of a water mill, of which a great block of black, basalt, out of which lower part of mill was made. The line of the water channel leading to it, north of it is still visible.

Dec. 7, 1942

The water may originally have been led here from Shuneh. There are many sherds of comparatively recent Arabic sherds not more than 2 or 300 years old. Also some flints. Closer views of Tell Abu Gamal from here. The large quantities of sherds of large jars came from jars in which grain was put after being grown. Mill here forever.

Sakhnah 139

On east side of road, on natural tell-like hilltop, which has numerous Roman Byz. caves and tombs on it. Roman-med Arabic sherds on hilltop around west of Sakhneh are flints and Rom-Byz. sherds. No ruins.

Tell Abu Adas- This hilltop immediately N. West of Sakhnah is perhaps called Tell Abu Adas

This place is about 3 kil. South of Shuneh.

Sakhneh and Tell Adu Adas immediately N.W. of it are on first level of hills on east side of Ghor.

Dec. 8, 1942                                        Tell MEDOWER 140

The tell is about 85 x 90 M, oriented n-s. Foundation of latest pd. house at n.e. end. On high, round, flat hill-top, with traces of original enclosing wall of BA. It commands the fertile plain below it leading to the Jordan and on its n. to s. sides is semi circumscribed by the Wadi Kharnab. The only way around is on the n. e. side. There is a small plain between it and the rising hills immediately east of it. The Jordan is visible nearby. To the north, across a small plain, and a dry wadi is Tell Lairuan. Parts of the top of this Tel Medower are covered now by grass. But in the bare spaces and on the slopes, we found fairly large quantities of sherds extending from Bronze Age to Byzantine, including a later Rhodian [?] stamped jar-handle. There is EB and MB masses of EI, and quantities of Hellenistic and Roman and a little Byz. and one or two med. Arabic also flints found, and one pieced [?] EB ear handle. It is on a natural, flat topped hill.

Tell Seiruan     141

On top of [?] of hills rising in east side of Jordan plain. See below for comments. Some foundation ruins on east side. This outspan was to the west, where it fell abruptly to the valley below.

Persian to Byz. shards.

This is not a tell, just a high rocky outspan.

A deep dip on N side leads to another hill the sides of which are being ploughed. On W. side is not very steep descent to Ghor plane. On S. side leads S.W. over small dip to [?], featureless flat topped hill, below which is Wadi Hosa (?), and beyond which is the plain [?], and in which is Waggos. Ploughing going on now. Sherds predominately EI, with some Hellenistic and Roman, and possibly a few BA. This is a small, flat, hill-top. No ruins visable now. This place is a small knoll set between the rising foothills on the east side of the Ghor. On W. side only is descent into Ghor plain. On dip s.w. of it leading to flat topped hill to s.w. of it were several flints.


On a rise near the top of the first [?] of hills on east side of Jordan Valley, and on N. side of small wadi leading from higher up in the hills beyond it. There are traces of some foundation ruins. Quantities of Roman-Med. Arabic sherds a few may be Hellenistic. Immediately in front of it to the w. across a small dip in which is a small, narrow, steep little wadi, is Tell Sairuan, a little higher. Both places command view of Ghor. This place ascends a hill, which then climbs up to the higher hills east of it. It slopes down between these 2 small wadis to the Ghor plain.

Tell Sairuan is merely a high, rocky outspan which juts higher and faith west and to the n.w. of it into the plains, over which it commands a splendid view. Behind Freiqi’a, some caves are visible in the hillside back and above it.

El-Qeseibeh 142a

Round flat knoll bet. Tell Medowan and village of Waggos. The slope on w. side is steeper than on east. On east side is small plain [?] it and hill rising steeply on [?] side. The extension of Wadi Hosa is just [bottom line cut off.]

December 9, 1942

Mohammad Salih                                143

Directly overlooking the Jordan, on the shelf above it, which forms the plain. A tiny village covers most of the [?]. Roman, Byz. and [?] med. glazed and painted Arab sherds here. Beisan visible to the SW on the rising slope on the West side of the Jordan. A mod. Arabic graveyard is over the part of the site where the few mud houses (15?) do not stand. Jebel al Sheikh usable, covered with snow.

TELL ARBA’IN                    144      2DPV 49, P.A. 420.

A distinct, fairly small tell a little over a kil. West of east foothills of Ghor of Jordan. Despite covering of green weeds, we found quantities of BA, EI (with burnished and painted sherds), Hellenistic, and glazed and painted med. Arabic, and some Roman sigillata. The top of the tell is covered with graves and a few stone and mud house belonging to the Ghazzawai under Mohammad Saleh. Among the graves on the north side are some small, broken pillars ^they are of marble, used as grave stones, which may be Hell., or Byz., or perhaps even med. Arabic. The plain bet. here and the foothills is being ploughed this year. Between here and the Jordan is being left fallow.

Among the BA sherds was Tell Hammeh painted ware and what may be a ledge-handle.

These Ghazzawi get their water from Wadi Ziglab.

With its considerable, gentle slopes, it can be said that Tell Aila’m [?] was quite a sizeable place. There are flints here too.

Dec. 9, 1942               6.2       145A

Aleiyan                       look for it on a new Deir Abu Saif Map.

A small collection of mud houses, in the plain just south of Wadi Ziglat. Roman to med. Arabic sherds, especially the latter.

TELL FENDI             145

Less than ½ kil. WSW of it on a large, very gentle, fairly flat topped rise that its extreme height is not more than about six or less metres above the plain to the east of it. It then dips down to the west and bounds on a branch of the Wadi Ziglab. The place is completely ploughed over, and is planted to grain, which is already sprouting. The recently turned over clods make it difficult to find sherds, but there are large quantities here, including flints. The whole area bet. here and the eastern foothills was prob. cultivated by the BA people here. Tell Arbain close by did the same in its area. The sherds here are almost purely EB. There are flints here too.

It is already obvious that at least this part of the Ghor was very heavily favored in EB times.

7. Dec. 9, 1942

146 Argat er-Rashdan (is in form of a natural amphitheatre with top spur on n.e. and lower span on s.w. side, with hollow between.)

We are in foot-hills on E. side of Ghor. Most of the BA sherds found near slopes leading to top of first outspur, almost due East of Tell Arba’in. Behind it to the ENE on top of the highest hill in the vicinity, which is the pinnacle od a rocky outspur are some fairly modern bldg.. ruins, and caves, and a few Arab inhabitants. From the edge of the plain up to the first outspur, below the one just mentioned, EB and Rom-Byz. sherds especially EB found. On S. and SE and to ENE side of this hill is a steep little dry wadi called Wadi Abu Zigadah (or Abi Ziyad) which goes down to the plain. To the N and W of it is the perennial stream of Wadi-Ziqlab. A ledge-handle found here. Some BA sherds, a very few, found on highest spur, where there is a cave in which a single family is living.

Both spurs, and the sloping hillside, and bench by first spur, on which the BA sherds were found, are bet. the 2 wadis , Wadi Abu Ziyad and the perennial stream of Wadi Ziglab. From the top most spur, there is a magnificent view of the northern part of Ghor valley.

Dec. 10, 1942


The place called Tell Gudsiph[?] near Tell Fendi, at junction of 2 streams of Wadi Ziqlab, which go into Jordan, is a low rise something like Tell Fendi, of same size. No ruins. We found considerable Rom- to med. Arabic shards there, particularly Rom-Byz. There were also a few Hellenistic sherds. The place is called Tell KUDSIYEH

About a quarter of a kil. to the W.N.W. of Tell Kudsiyah, is Tell Mehowash on a circular rise, overlk. the plain leading immed. to Jordan. To ENE about a kil. away is Tell Arbain . The sherds here are Rom.-Byz.

Dec. 10 (cont.)

This may be accounted a cont. of Tell Qudsiyeh, and for all practical purposes is not a separate site, but the edge of a shelf, leading from below T. Arlain, which then dips, and goes down in a level plain to the Jordan. A few Rome-Byz. sherds were found here.

148 TELL ABU Haret (Harsh according to the people in the vicinity).

Is on the top of a steep, high, flat topped hill, already above the lower foot hill on the east side of the Ghor plain. It is high and overlooks Araq Rashdas[?]. It is situated bet. Wadi Ziglab and Tariyebah, both of which have perennial streams. The waters of the Ziglab are clearly visable.

Wadi Jaiyibeh is visable also close by.

At the S.E. end is a very large cave cistern, which was plastered, and much of the plaster still remains. A cistern open led into it. The sherds on the slopes and ploughed over top range from Roman to glazed medieval Arabic. Jebel esh- Sheikh is visible. There is a less but still sufficiently steep descent on the east side. Below the SE side about a kil. and a half along is are about 7 houses next to the Wadi Ziglab.

The Sea of Galilee is visible from here, as well as Mt. Hermon, Beisan. Between here and the hills to east is a small plain. This flat top of Abi Hanet is about 30 m. circular. A piece of sigillata here.

Dec. 10, 1942 (continued)


Close by where we camped last night is immediately east of Jion Sheikh Hussein, and east of TELL ABU Hashi on the Palestine side. This is a very large EB or MB, perhaps down to LB site, dominating the plain leading to the Jordan. It is in about the middle of the plain leading from Jordan to the east foothill of the Ghor plain. The plain then extends beyond it till these foothills. There are practically no traces of walls on it, but a few stones near or on the surface, embedded in the soil, mark presence of a form encircling wall or of houses.

This large mound is oriented n.n.w. by SSE, with its tapering narrow tail turning to the west. The west side of the mound is the highest, the descent being only about half as high on the east side. On the west side the descent is about 25 meters.

Baiseu and Tell al Husn clearly visible to the west, west n.w. There are about a dozen mud houses below the NW end of the site, and several on the east side. The modern bridge is almost immediately in front of us to the west.

The sherds included Tell al Yaherdiyah ware, and several Roman fragments. The modern police post by the bridge is probably built over the Roman site. I believe there was a Roman bridge too.

Tell al-Arba’in is visible from here on its eminence. All of the sites we have seen in the last two days here were in sight of each other. The BA settlement in the in this region was intensive.


Dec. 11, 1942

El-Muntar Rasiyeh                             151

On top of a tell, at east side of Ghor plain, which is swampy for some distance near foothills as a result of irrigation and the N-S Wadi Melawi, is Tell Muntar, with remains of a fairly large modern bldg.. on top. The sherds are Roman to glazed med. Arabic. Tell Abu Alubi is almost due S. of here.

152 edh-Dhiabch         bet. El-Muntar and Tell Abu Alubi

On a very small rise in the little plain sloping up to the hillside in the east is this place, which is now a modern graveyard. There is a piece of a Byz.? sculpted stone on one of the graves. The sherds are Rom- to med Arabic. (also some fairly med. Arabic). There are other pillar fragments about of houses. It was a fair sized place.

Tell Abu Alubi 153

ZDRV 49, p.A423. Tell ‘alluba

Is a high, pointed hill on the east side of the plain, with a number of caves in its sides. A little to the W.N. W of this hill, near its base, about 100 yds. removed, on the west side of the road, are 2 embedded drums of pillars and a large building stone, pilaster(?) [sic] all belonging probably to some Roman bldg..

A number of caves (8) are visible on W. and N. sides of the hill of T. Abu Alubi

(A series of fallen pillars and bases indicate presence of early church or perhaps Roman bld.)


Beisan NNW from here

Tell Abu Alubi is E of here

Muntai is NNE of here.

About due W. on Pal. side is a Jewish colony.

This is a low rise, used as a modern graveyard. It is beyond the stony soil near the edge of the foothills, about a kil. almost due east of the Tell Abu Alubi. It is a place of considerable size, however. The top of the low rise, which is steeper on the west side than on the east, cannot be more than 5-6 m. above the plain. The plain dips gently to the west, towards the Jordan. A few Roman sherds, and quantities of MB pottery found, included folded ledge-handle and cream slip painted ware.

(Several tells visible on Pal. side.)

Tell esh-Shuneh                                              155

On a rise, at west end of a semi-circular series of Qatharahs or hills, which dip down sharply to the final plain bordering the Jordan. The sherds here are almost entirely med. Arabic of all kinds with perhaps some of the Byz. pd. There is a fine small granite pillar on the ground, which might have come from edh- Dhiabeh or the place in front of Tell Abu Alubi. It might also have come from Jalaqat Fahil (Pella) or been left here en-route there. However, it is necessary to consider the possibility of its originating here in five med. Arabic pd.

On the flat hill top, or rise are numerous holes such as we saw on Tell Abu Hashi esh-Dhiabeh in Palestine west of Jisr Sheikh Hussein yesterday. They were used to bury wheat in there.

Al-Muntai is visible to the east. The plain bet. here and the east foothills is not as large, but better watered (too well watered) than the plain around Tell Arba’in. Beisan is visible across the river.

Dec. 12, 1942

TELL GHANAM      156

A small rise about a kil and a half or less from east foothills of Ghor. A small number of Rom-Byz. sherds. Jebel Sheikh visible, also Beisan, and places south.

157 Tell Me’ajabeh (written on map Tell Me’ajeneh) It should be MU’AJAJEH

On a high natural knoll overlooking a bend in the Jordan, and commanding a view over the narrowing ­­­­­ plain bet. here and the east foothills. To the north there is a plain, enclosed by similar knolls. To the south are more of the knolls beyond a small plain. To the west is a small plain before reaching the Jordan. Shethabil is visible from here. Large quantities of EI, or Rom-Byz., some early MB and perhaps LB. Large quantities of sherds scattered about, and remains of wall and house foundations level with ground. Wheat holes here also.

T. Mu’ayabt (cont.) Small top of tell, which evidently had houses built on slopes and below although latter not visible. Perhaps a watch tower here now. Police post [?]

TELL SHERHABIL 158        10

2DPV 48, pp. A. 340

A. 334

On the south side of the Wadi Yabes, is a large Byz. side, with a large, ugly, cement bldg.. half built, on top of it. There are also painted and glazed medieval Arab sherds. The Wadi Yabes emerges from the hills into the Ghor plain about 2 kil. from here to the east and then meanders westward, till it begins to hit Qarrarafs near this site. The SHERHABIL or the N. side of the river is a natural hill.

Dec. 13, 1942

MEQBAREH.            159

We are a little less than 2 kil. E-ESE of Tell Shenhabil, at the beginning of the eastern foothills, with rising hills to the SE of us also, and the plain bet. us and the Jordan. The rise on the east side is fairly steep, and the ghat on the east side less so. There is a small plain bet. the east side and the hill back of it a plain extends also to the north and northeast. To the northeast, the hill beings about 1 to 1 ¼ kil farther back. The plain immediately to the SE, leads to the Wadi Yabes, where it emerges from the hills, and flows west northwest the to the Jordan. Between here and Tell Sheihalil, this is a number of very good springs. The NW Mt. Jabor is visible, as it has been from the start of this trip. Beisan is still visible, and all the northern series of Jewish colonies in the Beisan area and south of it. This is a fairly large site. The green woods coming up early and thickly cover most of it, making the finding of sherds difficult. There is an abundance of EI (including painted and burnished ware) and some MB (perhaps a bit of EB), and perhaps some AB. There is also some Byzantine. Excellently situated, this place commands the whole Jordan plain for miles round about. It is a little less than half way bet. the top of the hills immediately to the east and the level of the plain below. Foundations of rooms are just above filled with the surface, and probably to the EI pd. This place could well be JABESH GILEAD. The police post of grain (?) [sic] is visible to the SSW.

This place on N side of Wadi YABES

160 On S side of Rome, E-ENF of T. Sherhabil is a fairly large med. Arabic site, overlk. Wadi Yobles, with a single Roman and Byz. pillar standing on the top of the low mound this so called Kh. MEZAB el- TOT(?) [sic]

Cont. along the South side of the Wadi Yobis, from the Byz. and med. Arabic pt. Immediately opposite the JABESH GILEAD MQBAREH on the north side, about a kil. removed from it, on a rise are ruins of rough, strongly built Byz. and med. Arabic bldgs., with the ruins of a mill a short distance north of it on the S side the Wadi Yabes. There are large mosaic stones, and I found a very delicate flint knife. This pt. here is about ¾ the way up to the top of the hill. There are numerous Byz. sherds at this site, which I have marked BYZ, on the map.


Directly north of al-Qurn police station, which is about 1 ½ kil. to the south, and about directly S. of Tell Sherhahl. The Ghor narrows here. We are a little less than half a kilometer about (¼ kil) from the east foothills, and in the west side of the Tariq Medraj. To the south, about less than half a kil. Of Wadi Ma’azi. This place is in a small plain, with the police post visible on a rise to the south. This is a small rise, which would show only a swelling in a plot. There are some burials prob. modern on top. For acres round about this rise, sherds can be found, pretty well chopped up. The whole area is completely ploughed over. The sherds are all EB- early MB, a few Byz. and one EI.

161b KH or TELL AU HABIL SHERQIYEH          (There is a spring almost rimmed. NE of the place).

About 150 yds. to the SE of the precious small rise, is a larger one, with about a 2-3 acre top, on which are graves and heaps of stone, and at the s.w. end of it, the remains of a tower. Then to the east is a small dip, and then the east hills. It is bounded on the south by the shore Wadi Magsam (2) [sic] which runs into the Wadi Ma’azi. On it we found early MB, some EI, and a fair amount of Byz. sherds. In the BA pd. this was def. connected with the area to the NNW. of it. We have been here for over an hour now, and not a person has passed. We are on the E. side of the road, and the Wadi turns also to the west side of the site.

Dec. 14, 1942



This is a predominantly Byzantine site on the top of a hill, on the east side of the plain, in full view of Sleihat and the police post of Quin. This site is about compl. Isolated except on east-side, where the hillside rises to the very top of the east foot-hills. There are pillar drums being about here, and various foundation ruins, and there may well have been a church here. This place commands an excellent view over the Ghor plain, which from here to the west is quite various. TELL SHEIHAT itself, seen from here seems to be a long natural Qattarah. Across a small plain to the north, is a semi-circular range of foothills, which thrust themselves farther west than this one.


On the hill top immed. NE of the above place. It is on a steep hill the sides of which have been tended[?] in places. On the very top of the steep hill, which is commanded [?] by a small dip to the rising hills behind it are some mod. Graves. This place commands the same view, only better, as Tell Haneeideh, and is about twice as high. Mt. Jabor very visible. Owing to the steepness of the hill, few sherds were found, but enough to say that there were early BA and EI settlements or posts here, and also Byz. These people in ancient times, were probably like the people of Sleihat we slept with last night, who come from Kh. Wahadnah near Ajlun, and spend the spring and winter in the eastern foothills of the Ghor, which they cultivate. There were several few BA flint knives here. On the north side there begins a wadi, and 2 powerful springs, Ain Hejerieh[?] with a great sacred Sidu tree growing above there. The hillside north of this place, and north of the spring is full of caves. The Ain Hejsejah, which flows forth powerfully from several places beneath and by the grove of sacred Sidu trees, flows down the Wadi Jerah into the Wadi Ain al Beidhu.

Jhaharat Umm el- Merar 164

This is a large, high hill, standing by itself. On the east side, beyond a small plain, cultivated, extending in a gentle dip to the east, rise already the eastern foothills. From here Tell Hejejeh is clearly visible, a short distance away. To the east of us in the rise of the foothills is Ain Beidha and Kh. Beidha. To the immediate north of the site, at its base runs the Rod Umm al Marai. Almost directly west of us, and likewise on the S. side of this Rod or Wadi Umm a Marai is the Qern police-post on top of Tell Ras Gern. Beisan visible from here. The Jordan is only a few kil. away. The village of Sluhat[?] nestles to the SSE above the beg. Of the rise of the foothills. Apparently almost dividing the hill in two from bottom to top is a 3 meter wall, flush with ground running from approx. The SSE to the NNW. It is impossible to say that a wall surrounded the site.

There are very large quantities of early MB shards of a thin, fine top. Traces of house walls.

The most gentle slope is on the NNE side. There are great masses of thin ware, with flat bottoms, and folded ledge-handles. Also some flints, and jugs with ear-handles. Broken basalt [?] visible here, and on several other EB-MB sites we visited. There is a small Wadi also on the South side. The main top of the tell goes from SSE to NNW is about 110 m. long, and about 40 meters wide before it begins to slope sharply on east and west side.

The waters of Ain el-Beidha water the slope of the hillside east of the site.


Kh. Ain el-Beidha:

The waters of Ain el-Raidha and Ain Abu Fellah which start back into the foothills water the west slope of the ridge of this site. This place also in full view of police post.

is on a long narrow, natural ridge about 90×10 metres. (The waters of Ain el-Beidha and Ain Abu Fellah which start back into the foothills water the east slope of the ridge of this site. This place also is full view of police post)

Is oriented WSW-EWE. IT is less than ¼ kil. from Jhehaut Umm Merei. It is a high, narrow ridge, with 2 small wadis on either side, the waters from flowing on its N. side to water the slope on its west side. This site looks as if it could have been an EI place, but I found only Byz. sherds on it- water comes also from Abu Aind[?]-Fellah east of it.

Dec. 14, 1942

Kerkema 165: 2DPV 48, p. 339 KRKAMA

Is in the first range of hills behind the Ghor, in a plain of its own. It is a fairly large Roman-Byz-med. Arabic site on what at first looked like a tell. The Arabs had uncovered a large, high, almost square pillar, which was probably the support or one of the supports of some building or other. There were numerous Byz. and med. Arabic sherds. From the site, the N. part of the Ghor was visible, but the Ghor west of it was not visible. From there we began to descend, stopping at Bhohaut and Bhahaut, Abu Jamal, which is NNW of it. There is a fine view up past of the steep lands of the Wadi Yolas from this pt. up Thaharet[?] Abu Jamal. At neither of those Shabaiats were there are any sherds. On Korkenah is a very small village. Descending to the north of the Wadi Yoles, with the hill-side falling rapidly to the Ghor, we passed the Byzantine site up Merzab al-Jut, on the south side of the Wadi Yoles, with its remains of a fairly modern water mill by it. To the immediate north of it is another or a continuation of the same Byz. and med. Arabic site.

Dec. 15, 1942

165a Qurn- a rather Byz. and med. Arabic site on a height or rise rather overlooking the Wadi al-Quim. A few sherds visible. Fairly large foundation remains visible

TELL EL AQAREB 166                    22PV 48, p. A341

Is SE about less than 2 kil. of the police post which is on the same hill as the so-called Tell en-Nuerah. It is about 2 m. W. of the village of Sleihat, and less than a kil. about ½ kil. at W of Tell Sleihat. The site is surrounded by a thick wall, of about 2 ½ to 3 m, the foundation remains of which follow the general contours of this rise on which it is situated. It measures about 65 by 45 metres, and is oriented generally NW-WNW by WE-ESE by SE-ESE. The sherds are all EI. On the west end are the foundation remains of a large tower, which perhaps another one near the east end.

This place is the exact replica of the police-post of Qern. It is on a fairly high rise, which starts gradually from the post and mounts to the NW, where there is a rocky drop to the plain about 10-12 metres below. At the South end of a rise to the NW is the police post. The plain is rather small here between the Jordan and the foothills at the east end of the plain.

TELL ABU DAHNUN                      167                              ZDPV 48, p. A337

On a high hill, in full view of the village of Sleihat and the police-post or Qern on Tell Nugrab. Tell el-Agareb blocked from view by a hill to the N of this place. There is about ½ kil. between here and the east foothills. Tell Handekirk is clearly visible south of us. The highest part of the hill is at its NW corner, where it may be 40 m. above the plain, which extended to the immediate Jordan Valley. We did not visit Tell Mehbereh. On the N.W. corner of the site, are the ruins of an EI fortress roughly about 20 metres square, with a wall about 1:20 m. thick. The wall is now almost flush with the ground. It seems at one time to have strengthened with a glass, which is visible particularly on the west side. There is a possibly that the entire hill-top may have been enclosed in a wall, but it is impossible to say. The hillside on the west side goes down in these terraced stages to the plain below. Most of the EI sherds were found on this side.

Immediately on the N. slope below the main tower, are foundations of another bldg. This goes to the top of the N. side of the hill. It is about 10 m. sq. On the ESE side are also the remains of a bldg.. Traces of rm. foundations in these bldgs. are visible. The slope in the east side is the least steep, being fairly gradual. The built up area may have been in an approx. 35m. or 40m. square area.

168      TELL HANDAKUK 2DPV 48, p. A344      is about 150m. long and about 20 wide at the top. A high, long hill oriented N-S, with the inside of a horseshoe bend on the west side. It [?] a view commanding position, with a view over Tell Abu Dahnun and the police station of Qurn and the village of Sleihat. To the South the plain widens considerably. To the east, there is a small plain between it and the foothills. The gentlest slope is on the east side, where a series of 4m. wide vertical walls seem to have separated holdings from one another.

Dec. 15, 1942 (cont.)

Tell HANDAKUK (cont.) (168 cont.)

At the South side, coming in from the east hills is a Wadi which cuts across the S base of this high hill. The highest point of the narrow top is at the S end. The descent on the W. side is very steep. There are some clear foundations of houses on the top of the high, long hill. All the sherds, which are most numerous on the E side are EB-MB. Mt. Jabar is visible.

Megiddo Tombs, p. 144 says gray-burnished ware and chalcolithic here and at Tell Muntah.

SAOC 10, pp. 61-62: “… Pere Mallon has found pieces (of gray burnished ware) at Tell Muntah and Tell Handakuk in the Wadi ez-Zerka, Transjordan. No source is [?] for this.


I: 1-2 ornamented stones in temple (?) [sic] above amphitheater

Sheik Suleisman [?] of Pillar.

3-6 Mr. and Mrs. Dascol and family

Said Iskander Ammain at Tell Manshiyah, formerly Tell Aln Gamil- IPC relief station JVRS, = Jordan Valley Relief Station. Said Iskander is the head of the works. His co[?] is Blanch D. Ammoun who wrote the history of the Lebanon “Historic due[?] Lilan.”

:7 Asasiyeh. Remains of old mill, looking N. West.

:8 Tell Medower, looking. E.W.E.

:9 looking S.W. from Tell Seirie ‘au at Tell Medower

:11 Abdul Hamid ibn Enirz[?] Hamzel el-Yaagub near Jesr Shakh Hussaui


II: 1-2- Tell Sheikh Mohammad looking east

:3 Look at Tell Abu Hasheh on Palestine side, looking W. and shooting into the sun

:4 T. Abu Hasheh looking W.

:5 “ “ “ “ “ “

:6 T. el-Mu’ajabeh, lk. West. (MU’AJAJEH)

:7 Immud Abdul Heir, Abd Mohammad Zunali (Post-Office Beisan).

:8-11 Inactor in tent of Mohammad Zainali, with his servant and servant’s son in front,

:12 Looking ESE at Meghareh By Wadi Yales.

Blanche D. Ammoun: Histoire du Lilan 2. Anne edition

Editions “le Jour” Bequeath 1940

III: 1 looking ENE at MEQBAREH (by Wadi Yoles)

:2 looking W. at Dhahuet Wmmi el-Merar.

:3 looking ESE at T. Abu Dehnun

:4 looking ESE at T. Handakuk.

     :5 looking N at T. Handakuk taken from Tell Graimeh.

Left Side:


Dec. 16, 1942

Tell Abu Shahab

On the top of a steep hill, directly ENE of Tell Areimeh. Tell Saidiyeh, about a kilometer away. A few worn Byz. sherds on top No. building remains. A wonderful view over the Ghor, – Mt. Tabor visible over the wadi Kufrinjeh leading to the village of Qreimeh is an old bridge. Tell Hasas visible from here.


Tell Qelaya

South of Tell Qereimeh, 2DPV 48, PA.343. just on the south side of Wadi Kufrinjeh. It is a small rise, with large foundation remains on the top, which, however may be Arabic. There are EB-MB sherds, a few Byz. And one road. Arabic sherds. The top of the rise was an area of about 20 metres square. There are several EI sherds here too, but they probably come from Tell Qereimeh across the way, the village.

Right Side:

Of Qereimeh is due east of here, about 300 yards away. In the village are several Byz. Stones an old mill is in the south side of the Wadi Kufrinjeh by the village.

Tell Saidiyeh Es-Serqiyeh


The highest point is at the west and of the very large hill, whose top and especially sides are covered with El sherds. There are a very few Byz. sherds. Some house foundations are visible on the top. At the west and at the highest point are the remains of foundations of a tower.

Stevernagel, 2DPV48, p.A343

It is impossible to tell if the entire top was surrounded by a wall, but it does look as if there were a village on top. Below the west top, the land slopes for about 40 metres. Gently, there falls to the bench below it, which is also full of sherds. Then there is another drop through some small rises, to the plain immediately bordering the Jordan, whose waters are clearly visible

Left Side:

from here. On the Palestine side, there is hardly any plain at all, but int. [?] of chalk foot hills, like those near Jericho are visible from as far as the Qem police-ost, and continue for several kilometres more, before a bend in the river, gives some plain alas on the Palestine side. The west side of the hill is the least steep and the east side. The top of the hill, oriented W-E is about 115 m. long.

There is a magnet row of the Ghor. To the south of hill. About 4 kilometres to the south the river bends, and the small hills on the side are visable along banks of river, and show a large plain on Palestine side, down which to the south one looks directly from here. On the north side is the Wadi Kufrinjeh, a fairly big wadi. In the East is a plain about 3 kilometres ride leading to Tell Kreimeh.

Right Side:



e-w = 40 metres.

s-n = 90 metres.

However in NE side { e-w 30 metres, n-s 25 metres, the wall south is east preserved in south side.}

On the East side of foot of west face of Tell. The above mentioned bench below west face of high tell of T. Saidiyeh es-Sherqiyeh is in reality a large EB-MB site, on a large flat bench, the dimension of which in general are given on this page. On it are very large quantities of BA sherds, mixed also with large quantities of EI. On T. Saidiyeh es-Serqiyeh, however, which towers above it there are practically no BA sherds at all.

To the immediate West of the first BA bench is another one across a 40 meter dip but the two, on which also BA sherds were found, but nothing like the amount of the east are of the 2 benches. At the Northeast corner of the first bench is the above mentioned house.

Left Side:

Below the north side of the first bench runs not only the water of the Wadi Kufrinji, but the waters of a series of five springs which arise at this point.

For all practical purposes, the second bench of Tell Saidiyeh el-gharbiyeh that is the one farthest to the west road not be considered. From the West end of the EI Tell, i.e. Saidiyeh Sherquqeh, [?] and patric [?] from West and of Saideyeh Gharbiyeh the Jordan is not more than two kilometres removed. On the West side of Wadi Kufrinjeh, opposite Tell Saidiyeh Gharbiyeh are also some BA sherds.


Tell Abu Fesh in the lands of Basas el-Amasiyeh.

Down on the last bench, immediately preceding [?] the Jordan, and less than a kilometer from et, on top of a high knoll where starpost side is on the west side, bet. Which and the Jordan is recently ploughed plain, I found (Abu Fesh is the name of a man found on the site)

Right Side:

Some clear EI sherds. On this hill-top, as on almost every ancient hill top are modern graves. It is almost a test of a real tell, to see if there are modern graves on it. We are about 1 kilometre NW of Tell Saidiyeh there are some wall foundations flush with the grounds on this small site. It is way down in the Ghor plain, and we are completely surrounded by hills of the second bench. We can see more of the sites we [?] today.

The little plain is well irrigated by water coming from good springs in the last bench of chalk like hills preceding the little plain directly on the side of the Jordan. This little area completely enclosed on all sides except the west by a semi-circle of those hills, is a little fairly land plain- and rich, well watered, isolated, facing the Jordan and backed by those hills.

There are really 3 benches landing bet. The east foot hills to the Jordan – (1) on which Tell Kremeh stands, (2) on which Tell Saidiyeh stands, and (3) on which Tell Abu Fesh stands.

Dec. 17, 1942

Left Side:

Zur el-Meqbereh.



A similar small hill, not so high as Tell Alan Fesh. This Tell el Meqbereh is about 25 metres high. There are a few traces of a building or buildings on it. It is oriented roughly NE by SW and is almost 35 by 10 metres. It stands in the midst of a plain [?] about ¼ kilometres to the East by the chalky and bounded about ½ to ¾ kilometres to West by Jordan. The banks on the Palestine side are very steep. The plain to the north extends about 2 kilometres before it is encircled by the chalky foot-hills. All these places are little islands, so to speak, enclosed by the chalky hills on three sides. When we mounted to the top of the main plain this evening, on which Tell Saidiyeh stands, it was a climb of well over 50-70 metres, (and nearly the latter figure than the former. It would seem to me that the population in the EI period must have been quite large to have enabled

Right Side:

Or required the settlement of these little pockets- (not so little, when one considers that there may be a couple thousand dunams in one pocket such as those of Zur el- Meqbereh). On the other hand, it is well to remember that these pockets, however, cut off they may appear to be, are very choice sections of land. Particularly as was the one of Tell Abu Fesh.

Dec. 17, 1942



Tell Saidiyeh is to the NW.

Tell Mazon is to the SW-SSW.

Tell Arrata is behind the hill to the SW immediately near here.

This is on top of a fairly high, flat-topped hill, rising immediately to the east bow of the Ghor. There are hills to the North and East of us. Immediately on the North side is a dry wadi carrying out of the hills. On the east side of a dip moments from the wadi tell.

Left Side:

It comes to a small saddle connecting the hill top, with another fill immediately East of it, behind which is a small wadi to the South across a wide saddle is another hill top directly connected with this by this wide saddle on top. This hill top to the south is higher than the immediate one; beyond its South side is the Wadi Rajib. The wadi on the North side of this place probably lands south and comes from near or from Wadi Rayeb. This place commands a grand view of the plain to the West between here and the Jordan. The Kremah police-post is not usable from here. All the sherds are EB- early MB.

40 metres n-s

55 metres e-w {approximate size of the bench on N side below North end of South higher half of the hil-top}

15 metres n-s

Right Side:



Tell Amala is almost immediately SSW of the South half of those 2 sites, and is on the North side of the Wadi Rejab. This higher south side dominates the plain on other side of the Wadi Rejab, before the enclave of this plain is closed by the hills on either side of it. This hill top extends like a tongue southward, commanding a magnificent view of the outer [?] Ghor to the West and South. The North part of the South hill top is the highest part, and is higher than the BA hill top and saddle below it.

On the North part of the South hill-top one foundation ruins, with evidence of a great strong tower is oriented E-W, and measures about 40 by 15 metres, and is divided into rows.

To the South the village of Mojar Abu Abuida is visible.

There are El sherds on the South hill top in particular, marked with some EB-MB. Tell Deir Allah clearly visible from here.

Left Side:

This South hill top, oriented n-s measures about 75 by 40 metres at N and about 20 metres at S end. It slopes from N to S and [?] from N to S. There are foundation remains along the entire top, and some evidence that the entire top was once enclosed by a wall. The waters of Wadi Rejab rush by in fore, a rent across S base of this hill, below which is a round water mill.

The sherds are predominantly El on the site of Tell Gos Jarubi [?]. I have marched 2 sites on the map. The entire length of both hilltops is about 200 metres.

South of the Kraineh police-post this year there has been very little rain, compared to the rain-fall N of it in the Jordan valley which N of Kraineh has evoked such exuberant growths

Right Side:

Of 2DPV48, P.A.343.



Less than ½ kilometre from T. QOS JANUMI, and lower than J [?]. Situated on a knoll, with a family flat top on which are foundation remains. It is about 45 metres in diameter, and stands directly above the Wadi Rejab which flows around its South side. It is about 25 metres high above the level of the Wadi bed on the N side. On the W side is about 5 metres above the plain, and less at the SW corner. Where there is a gradual rise from the plain. The sherds seem to be all Byz, with some med. Arabic. The high Tell Mezae and the great one of Tell Deir Allah stand out in the great plain to the South which from here widens out considerably.

Sherds are Roman (include sigellate), Byz. And med. Arabic. There are numerous foundation ruins all around the main knoll. It was a fairly considerable site in the [?] days.

Left Side:



A small mound, covered with EI sherds. It is directly in the center of the plain almost and about half a kilometer from the towering Tell Mazar, which is directly to the SW of here, about 300 yards away.

The village of Majar Obre Abeid is about a kilometer East of here, or 1.25 kilometres at the base of the East foothills. Tell Qos is NE-NNE of here about 2.25 kilometres away. The mound is about 30 metres in diameter. There are some few building foundation remains on J. The sherds are all EI.



A very high, prominent hill whose top about 30 meters in diameter. It commands a magnificent view of the Ghor to the North and the South. To the [continued on right]

Stevernagel, ZDPV 48, p.344

Right Side:

North, the police post of Qem stands out on its knoll, Kraineh on its EI to Tell Handakuk beyond it to the North. To the east, and northeast from here about a kilometer away is the village of Mayor Abu Abeid, and to the SE the village of Zerai [?]. Both villages, especially the latter against the East hills, There is a path up the NE side of this mound, which may well follow the ancient roadway up. Tell Deir Allah is very close, being about 3 kilometres away, but standing out very clearly. Several other tells are visible in the plain south of here. The mound of Ghazala lies directly in front of us to the NE. To the west stretches the plain towards the Jordan. This is the most commanding site out in the middle of the Ghor. I have been on this trip. There are very large quantities of EI and LB, above MB pottery, covering the top and sides of the great mound.

Left Side:

Immediately below the West side of the mound, which is in the least high, with the most gradual ascent being on the SW corner, is a small, very low mound, on which too were similar sherds.

On the top of T. MAZAR I found a piece of sigellate, and there were a couple of Byzantine sherds.



On a low rise, immediately West of the strong spring of Ain Nefeil is a large BA site, on which are also some EI and Byz. sherds, quite a few of the latter. The spring is in a little Wadi below the rise on top of the very low mound

Right Side:

in a square area, on which are the foundation remains of a building about 30 metres square, with room wells inside of it all fresh with EI ground. The wall is about a metre wider than the construction. It is hard to say what period it belongs to. It looks very much, however, like the building remains we saw yesterday on T. Saidiyeh Gharbiyeh. This place commands a good view of Tell Mazar. To the west, it is bounded by the chalky Qatterahs, which mock the end of the bench, and the descent to the final bench of the lowest plain of the Ghor next to the river Jordan itself. This place covers quite a large area with sherd remains on about 4 acres of ground. Immediately to the South of it is a cultivated depression, which seems westward between a series of overall Qatterahs. To the north of it, across the intermediate plain Tell Saidiyeh is visible about 3-4 kilometres away. The building here, which may well be BA is oriented NNW by SSE. The Ghor and Kreimeh posts are visible, as is Tell Qos and Tell Deir Allah.

Left Side:

Dec. 18, 1942



A few houses on the slope rimmed above the last plain preceding the Jordan. On the slope a few Byz. and a few BA sherds found. We have come down through the Qattarahs, this part is directly South of the houses. These Qattarahs from the top of the main plain descend to the Jordan plain from 30-50 metres.


SE of T. SAIDIYEH about 3 kilometres away West of T. QOS – about 2 S-SSW of Tell Kreimeh, 4. This is a low rise, its lowest side on east side and its highest on West side, where it begins to run into Qatterahs descending to Jordon plain. It is immediately above and E and N of the spring of Ain Beweib.

Right Side:

The ruins of a wooden house are on it. It has a flat top, covering about an acre in extent. The sherds are early MB, and perhaps some LB and EI and some Byz. There is a small dry wadi on South side. There are sources of spring, which form a good stream in the Wadi to the south of it. Large numbers of BA sherds.

TELL ADLIYEH (also several EI sherds)

Village of Zeras [?] less than ½ kilometer to the SE, on the SW slope of the hill, about the slope of the foothill S.E. of it. We are S.SSW of the village of Mazar Abu Dat[?].

T. Dar Siba is little more than a kilometer and a quarter due South of here. This place is on a medium reza knoll, covered with Byz. and Med. Arabic and some Roman sherds. There are remains of foundation ruins visible. TeLL MAZAR. Tell Mazar is less than a kilometer to the NW.

Right Side:

½ kilometer n.e. of Tell Deir Alle.



Tell Deir Elle is about ½ kilometres imediately SW of here. This small, low mound, where general contour is about 40 metres in diameter stands in the center of the Zerga plain, at the place where it is found by the hills sort of retreating backwards to the compound [?] to the NE and ENE. The hills are about 1.5 kilometres to 2 kilometres away. Towards the Zerga Wadi. The plain shortly E-SE for about 3 kilometres. Tell Mazar, Kreimeh, Tell Ghazala clear to the north of us, also villages of Zera [?] and Mazar Abu East. To the west is the great plain reaching to the Jordan, which plain is wide here.

The sherds are BA, EI, and some Byz., but mostly BA foundations remain visible. On the NE side of ground foundations remain of house about 10 metres square, 1 metre thick.

Left Side:

J. Deir Alla is a tell WNW of Zerqa as it arranges with Jordan wells [?]. Then being to go SW to Jordan.



  1. Rimmed to SW the small village of Deir Alla with about 20 houses. Stevernageh ZDPV48, p.345.
  2. Immediately to NE below base of around 2 large Byz.- med. Arabic sherds on north side of Wadi Jim. and NE of it Tell Qaden. The waters of the Wadi Zerque have been averted to the North side of this great tell.

Police post of Qem clearly visible to N, and everyday we have visited south of it. To the West the well irrigated, fertile plain stretching to Jordan. To the east the plain was for several kilometres till it hits Zerqa gorge. May tells visible to the south and west of us.

Almost every square inch of this tremendous tell is covered with sherds, from bottom to top on all sides. The least steep side is the west side. On top are 2 stages, the highest being the eastern one. There are few building remains on top, to judge from the amount of pottery on this side alone, one might almost say more people

Right Side:

D. Hebab is ¾ kilometres away to E. – E.S.E. T. Jordanis ½ kilometer N.E.

lived here in this place and around it almost than in whole Ghor today. All the pottery seems to be EI, LB on this tell. None of these hills seem to be real tells. The tell is created oriented roughly EW and is almost 110 by 40 on top.

Many painted EI sherds. These were some pieces of clay. Some of the sherds may be LB, MB.



A large, low rise, with numerous Byz. and med. Arabic painted and glazed sherds, and med. Arabic sherds, standing in midst of ploughed plain. Traces of building foundation on top and sides. A small fig, pomegranate orchard of Earl side and some grapes.

Stevernagel 2DPV 48, p. 346.

Dec. 19, 1947.

Left Side:

Is a little one 2.5 wide. W-WSW from T. Deir elle.



A medium sized, fairly high mound, is in irrigated area, in middle of plain, with numerous Arab tents round about. Small orchard on NW side and another about ½ kilometer to east of it. From pewres tell, we crossed numerous irrigation ditches. There is a weather tower on the side, with a iron pipe.

The top is almost 35 metres in diameter. Good now, all around. The sherds are mostly EI.

Dec. 19, 1947.

Abu Nejreh


A low rise, at the beginning of the Qattarahs marking the drop to the Jordan plain. On the east side stretches the plain to the east and of the plain. On the west side, the Qattarah drops abruptly, steeply, running

Right Side:

then into similar Qattarahs, before coming to the Jordan drop. On the North side in the beginning of the Qattarahs. In the Wadi Kafar, which was near the North side, and below the NW [?] of the place is Ain Kafar. To the SE and East stretch the plain plain often seem small Qattarahs and the sherds on this small side are EI.

No building remains visible. Fair quantity of sherds.



A low mound, so low that riding towards it from the NW we would hardly see it till we got close to it. It is covered with predominantly Byz. sherds in large quantities. There are traces of building remains on top of the approximately 40 metres diameter sherds. It is quite close to Tell Deir Alla which towers above it to the NE.

Left Side:

Dhalab (place of Dhala)


On a large low flat rise, rising from west to east, about ¾ of a hill. E-ESE of Tell Deir Allah, is a large area, covered with Byz. sherds, which may well have been the Byz. graveyard. At the east end of this rise, the hill sides slope down or fall down in Qattarahs in miniature similar to those fronting [?] the Jordan and at their base is the small plain immediately by the Wadi Zerqa.



On a small hill overlooking the N side of the Wadi Zerqa, where the wadi walls [?] the narrow and rise. On the S side the hillside goes down in 3 fairly steep benches to the wadi below. On the west side a fairly gradual slope leads to the small plain but the east slope of the

Right Side:

above mentioned Shabab and this place, the plain extends to the NW. On the NE and N the hills lay begin to close in. To the east of this site is also a small plain, before the hills close in finally. On the very top of the tell, on its pinnacle are ruins of a tower which may once have been 10 metres square. House and wall foundations on all sides of the tell. Numerous EI and a few Byz. sherds about a couple of miserable tents in the vicinity now.

On the N side also is a long, large bench covered with pottery. About ¼ kilometer to the east in the wadi Zerqa some hot springs bubble up.


Where Abdul Kadr’o Tents were


is a fairly high knoll with some med. Building ruins on it. BA-EI and especially large great traces of Byz. found on it. Immediately to the east of it beyond and below it, beyond a small plain is the Wadi Zerqa, whose waters are led

Left Side:

by canal to the south of it. To the west stretches the Jordan plain. To the North is visible Tell Deir Alla.

Coming from T. Deir Alla south, there are some Qattarahs , beyond which and below which runs the Zerqa in a small plain. One fine ledge-handle found here. On the east side this knoll is about 2.5 times high as on the west side, which is the lowest side.

Right Side:

TELL RIKABI (Tell el-Magasim)


To NW is Tell Deir Alla



This is a fairly small mound, with some modern building (2) [?]. It is on West side of Zerqa, which is a considerable stream at this point. The lands around here are well irrigated with water led off from the Zerqa a few BA, EI, and fairly much Byz.



This is a small, fairly high knoll on the West side of Zerqa. Less than half a kilometer SE of Tell Rikali. The sherds are mostly EI here, and seem to be of same type as Tell Deir Alla, which is clearly visible from here, as are most of the sites we have seen. North of us is the Ghor including Tell Handquq and Qem Police-posts there are hardly any traces of building foundation remains on top.

Right Side:



This side is larger than I thought it was at first. The road is out through its east side, which is fairly steep. There is a [?] little plain of about 15 meters in front of it before opening to Zerqa itself. On the other side, about 100 meters from stream is a small knoll on which is a modern house. The pottery is EI. It is such a small little knoll that the house built on top of it was about half of its top.

Tell Schewan and Na’ermeh


A large, low rise, with a couple of modern houses on it. Large quantity of med. Arabic, Byz. and med. Arabic.

Right Side:

T. Zakari

er-Remal is NE-NNE of here. Shahawa is NNW. This is a fairly high knoll, with grass on top, covered with EI pottery, immediately ov[?]. The Zerqa below is steep east side. The Jordan plain extends to the West of it. It is oriented NE by SW. The east drop is the steepest. The Palestine [?] of Sartaba is to the SW.

Dec. 20. 1942



A quite large Byz., medium and fairly med. Arabic side on East side of Zerqa on a long hill, would SW-NE, and using about 30 meters above the irrigated plain but it is Zerqa. To east of it going to East foothills is also a well cultivated plain. On the west side of Zerqa are some Qattarahs.

Right Side:

The land begins to rise quietly from east [?] of this side towards foothills. The east side is about half as steep as west and rises gently. Some is twice of long, parted S and SSW sides. Remains of building foundations. Collected some med. Arabic sherds.



Stevernagel ZDPV 48, P. A347 tell el-manteh

A quite large, low mound covering perhaps 4-5 acres, set in the middle of the wide, well irrigated plain. Only a few graves visible now. Sherds predominantly Byz., with some med. Arabic and some fairly modern Arabic Qem and Kreimeh police posts visible from here.

To the south the Qattarahs seem to close in. The Damieh police post visible to the SW.

Megiddo Tombs, p. 144 says gray burnished urne found here and Tell Handakuk = CHALCOLITHIC.

Left Side:



SSW of Tell Muntah which is clearly visible about 2 kilometres off this is a low rise, mounting to a hump in the center, but covers an area of almost 5 acres across. It is a very large site, with its outer parts ploughed over. It is covered with MB pottery, with especially the pot-bre[?], then walled (free cm[?]) and filled large-handle ware. There are a few EI and a few Byz. sherds here. To the west beginning the Qattarahs leading down to the Jordan, which on it considerable extent here. They are about a kilometer away. The Zerqa bends around to the south fairly close to here, almost a kilometer away. The Qattarahs of the Zerqa run there into those of the Jordan. The culturable area stops short of here to the south, about ½ kilometer away. To the

Right Side:

North stretches the great broad plain dominated by Tell Deir Alla to the northeast. The land rises from here, and from below the base of the wadi to Tell Muntah.

A few [?] building stones visible on top of the mound, but for all practical purposes none are here. One of the reasons I now believe there are so few building remains, is because the building material in BA-EI Tumor in this Ghor must have been what they now are- mud-brick.

This place is really the last large BA site in the south end of the Ghor on the way to Damia.

Way in the distance Kreimeh and Qernai are visible.

Immediately to the east, across a slight dip, about ¼-1/2 kilometres is a small rise with graves on it, which may well belong to this place.

Left Side:



About ½ kilometres east from Tell Umm Hamad West, is cut through by the main side to Damah. It is on top the rise, which breaks down into the Qattarahs with five little plains between them. This place extends along the upper part of the rise for about a mile or more. On the north part of this site, particularly near the graveyard on the highest rise, on the north slope and side of it are some EI sherds. This site is EB and CHALCOLITHIC (?) [sic].

The large early MB site to the west of it is visible from this rise but so low that nothing would show in a plot. The same is true of this East side; the whole slightly undilating plain along both sides

Right Side:

of the road is covered with these largely reddish sherds. Rashid found an EB jug ¾ complete. This is the largest site I have ever seen. Large fragments of jars of all kinds are on the surface. There seems to however been only a smallish EI settlement by itself. The EI settlement might be considered fairly large. Some EI sherds were founds also on the WEST side.

Tell Deir Allah visible from here. Tell Meontah visible. Tell el-ASIYEH visible. This place is easily a mile wide. There is a banana plantation below the graveyard Qattarah. For a mile the roadway along the east and of the Qattarahs and the top of the Qattarahs and their slopes to the east are covered with EB and Chalcolithic and some EI sherds.

Dec. 21, 1947. TELL DAMIA

Left Side:

After about half a kilometer to the south the Qattarahs closed in on us completely, and we began the descent of the Qattarahs to the Zerqa plain. It is planted to bananas down. The occupation ceases from this site till the rich Zerqa-Jordan plain is reached, in which the large Tell Damia stands.

Dec. 21, 1947. TELL DAMIA

Stevernagel, ZDPV 48, p. 347

EI, some Roman and Byz. a high knoll standing in the narrow plain beginning with the junction of the Zerqa with Jordan, continuing the small plain of the Zerqa, continuing south into the [?] small plain of the Jordan. The well irrigated plain here stands with the exception of the Zerqa. Jordan openings almost [?]

Right Side:

By steep Qatterahs on the top of the East hills in the Damire Jedine post on the top of the west the police post. The plain to the north and northeast and east of the mound is the bent. The least steep slope is on the west side; it goes down to a bench of about 50 by 25 metres oriented n-s, and then drops to the plain about 5-10 metres armored car tracks are visible [?]. This side to the 25 metre diameter and the top of the knoll.



On slope of east hills, east of Zerqa and east of large plain stretching west to east Qattarahs of Zerqa.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *