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Apr. 25, 1944

Umm Khasubeh


Wadi Zigrat is below us to SSE. Across a small wadi and tiny valley on a hill below us is Medevar to the W-SW. This is a flat-topped hill, with ruins of dolmens on top of it, and on all its sides. Most of the earth is washed away, and the ribs of rock stick out. On the very top is a long, rectangular foundation, on top of which is a straight row of 3 or possibly 4 dolmens- the first of its kind I have seen. There is another fairly intact dolmen on the same flat top at the n.e.

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end, and foundations of other dolmen ruins. The dolmens rise from N to S on base. There was a stone enclosure on top of this hill, which enclosed the dolmens above mentioned. There are numerous other dolmen remains beyond this enclosure, however, on hill-top and sides of hill, -which, however, on further examination, I see, are also contained, at least on top of hill in stone enclosure.

In the shelf a few meters below this top of the hill are 2 large dolmen foundations. The hilltop and sides were originally, undoubtedly, covered with them. Below this hill are small, cultivated valleys.

The new police post tower of meduan stands out.

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The interesting thing is that the hillsides are obviously and carefully terraced- which underlies my conviction that these dolmen-people were farmers. From here (Meduan) to Jerash, there is a entire mass of such dolmens.

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Tell Deig Musa


also EBI

A very large mound surrounded by wudyan, which are really fairly nice, small cultivated valleys. On top of the tell, are 3 large cave-cisterns (?), which are now used as store-houses, and many have been used by Romans and earlier. From wudyan below the land rises in five stages at least to bottom of tell, whose sides are then terraced. There is a modern house at the SE end, and a small number of Arabs squatting here.

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The sherds are very numerous, and almost exclusively EI I-II, with some Roman-Byzantine. The top of this place has sufficient soil for considerable cultivation.

There are traces of a wall around the site. The hill is connected by a saddle of land on its N side to the hills N of it. The villages of Nadrach and Umm Rummareh and Medevar [?] visible from the Tell.

{3600 meters square/ Rochid’s [?] 30 meters domam)

1 personally didn’t space off the Tell.

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Khirbet el Metwe (by Ain Abre Jebrah)


This is a very large EBI-II site, which extends all the way in stages which were anciently carefully [?] down to the spring. Careful search revealed quantities of sherds. It may be that tell Duq Musah was originally BA, belfore it was intensively occupied in EI period. I did find one early EB sherd on its southern slope. All the way down to the spring, are traces not only of terraces, but also of walls, which may have marked limits of fields. The slopes down to the spring are

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quite gradual, except immediately below the tell, and these slopes are all cultivated today. They lead down to a small, cultivated valley. Among the sherds are inverted ruins, and thick red glazed sherds also checked for combed ware. There are also some Roman sherds. Some rock cuttings visible, and comical holes in rock. There are probably some BA tombs in the vicinity. I am sitting now working in the shade of a few trees in the local cemetery.

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This place is North of Suq Musa, and E of the Ain Abu Jabr. On bottom of slope immediately North, is small Roman Biskeh and cave cistern into which its waters emptied when full.

Abu Ayateh


The highest point in this hilly country, we have been knocking around in all day. From here Tell Khanasi is visible, Remthah, and meduan. This is a high Roman and Byzantine police-post, with numerous cisterns, and rock cut, and plastered cave-cisterns. One lonely [?] tree here, and several below western side. A few sherds which might possibly be late EI. There are some worn EI sherds, also Roman through Arabic.

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There was apparently a wall around this place, and there are ruins of strong stone houses here on top of this vantage point. On can see beyond Remthah into Syria. Also Qefqufa. All the hill round about show traces of dolmens.

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April 26, 1944.

Umm Betaimeh (302)

EB to end of Chalcolithic and Arabic on the slope east of the small village of Umm Beteimeh with it good, flowing spring, and few trees. Above us towers the hill on which Tell Huweishan is located. There are some featureless ruins here, which are Arabic. Some Roman and Byzantine sherds, and some late Arabic sherds.

This place overlooks the tiny valley in which the [?] village of Umm Beteimel is located. The valley and slopes (already largely eroded) are cultivated. This is a very hilly country.

Dolmen remains visible on hills round about.

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A very large EB (down to Chal.) site, about 2 kilometers east of Meduan, and reaching back into the hills to the West of it for another 2 kilometers. There is a valley before medwar [?] to the West, and there the land ascends West in terraced stages to the top of the hill to the west, with the stages becoming manover as the hill ascends. The land is ploughed over, and the sherds much broken up. The remains of an encircling outer wall, although there are remains of

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walls. Numerous fragments of basalt querns and bowls and millstones. A small valley built around the bottom of the anciently cultivated hill.

The sherds, many of them, are similar to those of Umm Hamad Sherqiyeh in the Jordan valley, and go back to Chalcolithic period. The site is about ½ or 2 kilometers long and extends from east running to west, and is about ½ kilometers wide.

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Very large MBI site with pottery like that of Usure Stemad [?] Ghaibiyeh. We followed the cultivated valley, leading off the main road between Medwar and Rehab, and then going towards Belawa. It is a pleasant, cultivated, elongated little valley. At a point where several small wudyan join on the slopes gently using hillsides on east and west sides and of this center, are patches of ruins, or rather piles of rocky debris, with sherds thick about them. They might appear

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To the [?] of field stones, were it not for the sherds round about them, and in the fields. The abandoned village of Ain is west of here. There are no springs here of there today. This is one of the largest MBI places I have ever seen. The widely spaced clumps and piles of building some _____ are think that it consisted of numerous groups of houses or groups of houses.

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Tell Ain


also EB and EI


E-SE and below hill on which is located non-descript village of Ainsch is Tell Ameh, about 50 meters in circumference and about 20 feet high. Connected with it, to Southwest, [?] a tiny dip in between is another small tell, on whose sides are particularly large numbers of EI sherds. This place is about 2 kilometers West of Muameriyeh. Across the valley, on West side of a slope of hill across the way is a fine Roman tomb, in shape of a building. It is getting dark, and I shall have no time to see it. On high hill above this place is a Roman Qal’ah, which I haven’t time to inspect.

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The main part of Tell Ain is used as a burial place today.

The Roman tomb is Galld [?] Qusein, and this is called the Wad el-Qesein. The sherds are all EI, and include several sherds which may be LB. also Roman-Byzantine and med.-Arabic sherds. The spring once emerged at South side of Ameh [?] hill.

The two parts of tell are one tell, with hillside terraced leading to small valley below it.

We have gathered sherds on the run, so to speak.

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We are on a flat hill top about 1.5-2 kilometers due south of village of Aineh, and on about the same height, with the tell at its base. The South side of this flat top leads to the top of the hill above it, of which it is a part. It was a steep ascent up to here, above the valley below the tell of Aineh, and the village of Aineh perched on the hill above it, with caves visible in it. It looks as if the top of the Ameh-village hill was occupied in early times.

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This large flat shelf near the top of the hill is terraces in, and uses in semi-circular stages to top of hill. Near the northern edge of this shelf of this site are some hege, standing stones, which look as if they belonged to dolmens.

The walls of the ancient terraces on this rising shelf whose terraces rise in a semi-wide from the South to the West are clearly to be made out.

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This is an EB- I-Chalc. Site. I didn’t have time to collect sherds, but Rashid did, and I have to see those he has gathered on previous occasions. There are dolmen bases on the site.

April 27, 1944.

Tell Fa

Coming from Mafraq to Irbid I am struck over by the size, and excellent location of Tell Fa.

Tell Mabrum Ghosh


E-ENE of Tell Fa. It is a flint site.

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Bewedah map

Near Syrian border. We turned North from Mefraq to Irbid road, and fl. A dirt road , through water or largely uncultivated land to this place. It is on a natural hill, and the site abounds with fragments of Roman and Byzantine sherds. There are some modern houses on top of the hill of basalt blocks, including many of earlier building stones. At the NE corner of the hill, at the bottom of the slope is a cistern, the top part of which is formed of old building blocks, including one with a Byzantine cross in a grooved circle of raised dots. Every [?] is constructed of old building stones, some ornamented.

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The village of Nasib in Syria is visible from here, plus Jebel Sheikh, with stone visible on it. This was once a very large site, covering an extensive area. The water is collected in cisterns.

There are grain fields round about here. The crops very poor this year.

The Roman sherds are, many of them, very fine [?], being indistinguishable from fine Nabataean sherds, except that they have no painting of any kind. There are fine sigillate sherds. There are Arabic sherds here too.

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There are several round mosaic floors here. A ruin of a large church at S end.

There are close to 40 people in Jaber. Then border towns are inhabited by Syrians really, the people of Jaba belong to Dera’a really.

Soma’ Sedud is another of there Jeber sites and is visible to the SE from Jaber.


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[entry crossed out]

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May 6, 1944

El-Rais Muhammed Said Bey Ashaqat

And Salameh are with me.

Arrived Muwaqqar morning coffee in tent in front of police-post, and drinking coffee. We have come from Amman, to Reihab, and then to the police-post, on top of a hill at Minggar. The fields with the poor grain this year, show increasingly less yield. There is a little shelf of 6 children of sheiks studying in court yard with a teacher.

Suleiman Effendi Ibn Jahan, Sarent Major [?] is head of the post. [Arabic scribt] Sayyid Abten ed-Dreibi, of Bem Sakhan is going with us as guide.

On a hillock south of here is a small ruin in a hillock, with several ruined houses in it. One begins to see from here broad

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Expanses of desert, consisting of hard ground, covered with great numbers of small stones, and now slightly tinged with green, after the ruins of the last few days.

We are filling our car here at Mes’Aggar with benzene. There are still a few patches of grain round about here. Among the children studying is one black boy.

The hill on which the police-post is situated is a flint site. The Roman-Byzantine ruin across the way to the South is almost completely destroyed with a few fragments of walls still standing. The sherds are fragmentary Roman-Byzantine. There are a few drums of small, round Byzantine pillars on surface. Walls of small well blocks

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All the water comes from wells. We have been served a breakfast of eggs, leba [?] and bread,.Said Bayd [?] and I eating fast and after that our [?]. No water here at all. The rain has been so little that all the grain is eastern Transjordan has dried. The water for the police post is brought by car.

The [?] here are Begari Sakhar of the Khreishan group [?].

Immediately East of Muriaggar [?] are remains of a fairly large Bukeh, with

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The dirt embankments. The locals. The locals use the floors of the Bukeh for planting.

Qasr Khanereh 32503.1 meters.

32529 crossroads in and directions to Arak [?] Bayri, Amman, Assni and Hedetha (in Sinken).

We have passed Wadi Dbobai, and are going there great, rolling, flint covered descent, with patches of bare wadis but from the North the hills of Azrak can be seem.

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At North end of W. Sishan. A wide depression, under which is large mass of water or water-soaked earth. All that is necessary is to break through a skin of rock, and the water wells up. The rock averages from a ½ to 1 meter thick. The entire area is an ideal camping post, and I have photographed 2 of the wells. It is said that there are about 7 of them, but only 2 are open now. In numerous places, the earth is wet, where the water is directly underneath it, from wells formally dug. I have thus far picked up only 2 Rom (Nab.?) [sic] sherds. Ian Kirkbride has found more some place near here.

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ßaid Bey has shot 3 partridges just now, and the Arab Legion chaps are preparing them the debris of numerous herds of animals litter this area. About a kilometer ½ North of the 2 wells is a small hillock higher than any other, and it may reveal the ruins of a small fortress. A few meters west of it is a clump of several palmes. This is a real Sabkhah. The land is wet and slippery. It is good we came here in the police car. We wouldn’t have gotten there with our Ford.

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There are numerous sherds lying about, extremely worn, which are Roman and some Byzantine. The Roman could also be Nabataean. It is obvious that this has always been a great caraway center. There are Arabs camped near here now. This hillock is about 40 meters long, and about 10 wide, and is oriented approximately n-s. It is about 10 meters high, and is larger than any hillock near here or anywhere round about. One commands a view of the entire Sabkhah here. There is a cistern immediately North below this hillock, and good water West of it.

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The hill Said Bey shot on called Qatah

Abtan, our guide, it turns out, was with us at Jebel Isbeig in 1933.

Phot. camels at rock-cut well near palms.

The Sabkhah extends to Azrak [?].

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Village of Amu



Whole village is at end of village. Oriented NE-SW building oriented and measures 50×12 meters, size of a whole series of rains. Oriented E-SE by W-NW.

This is really a tremendous village, a whole series of kains [?] with rooms about 5 or 6 meters square.

This village is due south of the wells. The walls, clearly to be seen, and with the rooms still perhaps largely intact inside over an area of ½ kilometer. Those buildings are S of the Sabkhah, and represent a great caravan center at entrance of Wadi Sirhan.

This village is more than a kilometer long, with separate khans.

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There are great quantities of Roman and Byzantine sherds, but no painted Nabataean sherds. There may be no painted Nabataean sherds North of Dead Sea line of Nabataean kingdom it is indisputable that the Nabataean hold Wadi Seihan and Jebel Druze.

Wadi Sirhan

Hirfan stp we found 6 Hirfan Najdis and in the desert, without a shepherd. They evidently escaped from a shepherd who was bringing them from Wadi Sirhan. The soldiers have piled them in the auto. They would have

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been killed by jackals tonight, or died of thirst tomorrow. We have found in the Wadi Makhrug, and will water them now. We found the sheep miles South of village of Amri.

There has been a great deal of rain in this section a few days ago, and the entire land is soft, so that the cars make deep tracks, and in some places skid. We have been coming south from Ami and are near Makhsug. The land is sloping imperceptibly to SW Sirhan. That is seen by way water has run in wadis we are crossing.

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Much of the land is salty, and there is a salt encrustation at many places on surface.

It is black and bare, and black world, still with patches of green because of the rain.

A gazelle dashed in front of us this evening, but the soldiers mussed fortunately, when they found at knoll [?].

We have stopped after sunset by wadi and Said Bey short a large rock.

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May 7, 1944


We stopped in Wadi Heseidat Umm Arodat F’ull moon went down at 5:15 A.M. The men killed one of the sheep last night when Said Bey asked them beforehand, how many sheep we had, they said 5, knowing we had 6.

All the wadis go directly to Wadi Sihan [?] now.

We have been ff. Wadi Mafhrug.


Said Bey just shot a Hebari (wild Turkey?).

We are passing through a completely black, flint area, called Hamad, which stretches down to Wadi Sirhan.

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The Wadi Sirhan is only a fairly slight depression, black like this featureless black region, with depressions in it like the Wadi Heseidat Umm Aradat, near which we spent the night- a broad path across which the water courses in rainy season.

The truck we are following parallels the West side of Wadi Sirhan.

32591 We are stuck and being pulled out by army truck. The earth is like a soft lemon sponge cake,

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with a coating of darkened limestone and fling covering. To the east, in the far distance can be seen the east in Saudi Arabia.

We can see the Jebelash-Shama’ [?} in the distance to the east in Saudi Arabiah. The Wadi Seihan is [?] us and the hills. We are on a truck only a few kilometers west of edge of steeper decline to Wadi Serhan. It is silly to be so near and not be able to enter.

32594.9 in Wadi Beyin [?] at border.

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32603 We are in the Wadi Shareh, a tremendous shallow wadi leading down to West Serhan, and sloping from South to North, and descending East at same time. The wadi is simply wells or furrows through which the rain water runs, and is frightfully bumpy on an automobile. The earth is still wet here, and we get stuck about every mile.

We are now in Wadi Abu Treifiyat, and I have photographed some Saudi camel-herders. To the East can

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be seen the Jebel Dherayil, rising white and high like castles.

32619.5. We are in the midst of the sandstone hills of Jebel Shewagel. The ground is sandy and covered with white flints. There seems to have been less rain here.

32624.5 Um Lekern

Blotish sandstone hills- black flint desert- mirages.

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We have passed a good many camels grazing, going South of Umm Leken still passing through an empty, black wilderness, broken every now and then by sublet [?] expanses of earth from which the surface flints have been washed away by the freshets.

32644. We have stopped for lunch by such a wadi, when dry shikh, scrub, is available. Its roots make a fine fire. The soldiers are making bread and cleaning out the Habasi. They have removed the 6 sheep from the cars, and are letting them graze.

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There is rain water in the wadi.

32666 (312) Mesheish Rhadrak [?]

In the Wadi Khadrak are numerous wells, about 10 being visible now. There is always water in the wells, although now there is water in the shallow wadi itself.

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The wells are just mud holes in the Wadi Khedrak, about 8-10 meters in circumference. Herds are watered here all year long.

On the hillside W and SW of the wells and wadi are flints and numerous very worn Roman (Nab.) and Byz. sherds. It is the slope that leads to the rolling plain above and around the wadi.

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On way from Mosheish Khadrh [?] to Bayir is Ghonnel Khudraj (Khomon), a large, brown sandstone hill.

May 8, 1944 (5:45 A.M. Sun is just up, and it will be 5 minutes before moon goes down)

32704 We stopped last night by some large stone circles on the rest of a hill, or a high rolling slope. A couple kilometers away to the N-NE is Jebel Gharah and to the N-NW the Jebel Metaha, with Bayir to the NW among the Jebel Meteha. The Wadi Khaiddhu [?] cuts close to these three stone circles, which are circa 22, 17, and 16 meters in diameters. They are extremely crude circles, with what are obviously several small burials by the side of them.

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Reached the police-post of Bayin.

The old Nabataean ruins, left when the now police post was built, is even more chopped up than when I first saw them in 1932. Here, again, as hen, I have found quantities of typical Nebataean of Patra pottery, fragile, egg-shell thin, painted, which I failed to find at Amri [?] and Mesheish Khadrak. The lack of it here may simply be due to the fact that so little remains. However, the question of its absence still remains open. I also found sigillata here. The modern graves have piled up in the last few years.

The modern groves have piled up in the last few years.

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There is room for European guests in the modern fort, with plainly marked, US army blankets on the 2 beds.

A magnificent peacock sitting in the corner of the inner walled compound, and also a female.

Two large stones of the Nabataean castle are at the entrance of the barbed cave [?]. We had a Shabihah here. Another one of our shop went. Now 5 remain of the original 7.

(313) Q’lat and Wadi Qlat

We have been traveling on the new track east of the railway, but west of the Sichan desert line. It climbs the ridges of the hills. We have come across a large dam, like the one in the Wadi Kusnub. It is

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At the South end of the wadi, with the bolstering pillars on the North side of the wall. The South side of the wall has been completely covered up to the very top by the masses of earth washed down it from the hills to the South. The wadi goes North for about 50 meters and them heads to the East. The well has stood up perfectly thus far, with only the stones of the worn pillars broken.

The rows of stones are stepped up gradually, each now being at in further to the

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South, some 12 centimeters. The stones are well dressed.

62×35 centimeters size larger stones 15 rows of stones visible all white limestone.

The West central pillar is 6.000 meters high. It can be seen resting on the wadi bed.

57.8 meters is the total length of the entire dam, which of course goes well on to either side of the wadi.

The width of the top of the dam is 5.50 meters.

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The pillars are 2.10 meters from e-w and about 1.5 extending into wadis.

We have come 500 meters from the dam. The wadi turns east. There is a big drop, and a large natural hole filled with stinking dirty water, which looks as if it might have been formed in prehistoric times by a waterfall.

The water coming from the South. The wadi has numerous such closed in water holes.

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Whatever the name is of the dam wall, one must reflect that it is way out in the desert and represents actively the likes of which would not be thought of even today.

The water comes from the S-SW and goes N and E.

This is a rolling country, covered with flints. Kelb Bonliyat is the name on the map, but our guide Abtan says it is wrong.

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We are between Qasr Teba and the railway.

The army car has broken a spring, and we have to [?] it back. Anyway, the country is so water-logged, we could get to Bergia [?] without the army car. We would have been hopelessly stuck a dozen times, the last time this morning, when they pulled us out a Bayn.

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This Wadi Glat is known to kick as the Wadi Shohar- actually the [?] wadis come practically together. The flint site discovered by Kirk extends just above the river. There is a second, broken down wall below the well preserved one.

May 10 {Anjan Ahmad min [?] Adthama of the Arab Legion with me and Salomeh.}

Left Amman 8:30 A.M.

Arrived Mafrak 9:30 “”

The desert is green with grass, as a result of the recent rains. The wudyan are filled water, and every now and then on sees a flock of sheep by one of them. Occasionally, a herd

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of camels can be seen grazing. This is slightly rolling flattish country, with the hills of Syria to the north. As we get [?] east, the fields are covered with a [?] cup of large rocks with every now and then basalt folds, broken down, where apparently at times the animals were herded in at night time. We are passing constantly herds of male sheep, being driven westward across the desert from Iraq, [?] to Shibley Bishara, who delivers them, as monopoly contract or,

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To the markets in T.V., Pol., and Syria.

Passed a section of the pipe lifted out of the earth for repairs. It looked like a section of an earth-worm partly pulled out of the ground.

HS 11:00 AM.

The desert gets increasingly black. We are in the Hamad area, covered with black basalt stones. There has been rain over here too, but it is hard to see. We just passed

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the Wadi Rujer (?) in which there were pools of water, and in which green clumps of grass were visible. This is a pretty green looking part of the world. Nearing H4. The countryside is really flooded, with great pools of water in every light depression. It is moving now to the E and behind us to the NW. Lucky we are on the asphalt road.

The covering of basalt rocks have given way to small pebbles. We are moving straight into a

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thunderously black rain cloud.


Just before reaching H4, we have struck North across a flat plain, with small basalt pebbles coloring it black, the brown earth, however, visible beneath them.

There is some brush and the Sareb, [?] (mirages) keep on retreating in front of us.

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Qesr- opening on West side only, a narrow doorway, facing Wadi Uruqat, which is in flood now, surrounded by an enclosure, which on other sides amounts to a khan. Qase of fairly well cut blocks. Khan enclosure less well made, with chunks between rows. The Seil is full and wild and [?].

The East wall has been widely repaired after a major break in it. The Qasr was [?].

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high originally. So was the Khan, which was 2 meters wide. The gate to the khan was on the North side. The entire area is surrounded by a great mass of graves, and heaps of basalt stones, some of which may be houses.

We have been rushing frantically. I am resting now while the car is moving back across the plain. It is rainy also to the North, and getting darker every minute, and thundering. If the rain catches us in this flat plain, we shall be the

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stuck for a week.

The large entrance to the plain is on the North side, where there was a stone gate, which I didn’t have time to look for. The Arab street coming here now in May with them herds and flocks, and stay till the winter. The water in the wadi, which is still running collects in pools, and lasts till then. It is raining on us.

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Now. Let’s hope we make it back before the land gets soft.

The sherds are Roman-Byzantine.

Altogether we stayed on the spot 15 minutes. It was either risking it it seems or not seeing it at all. The whole place reminds me of one of Glabb’s now desert police posts.

We made the road, and it is now pouring. We have stopped for a while, to let the first downpour pass. Three shepherds are squatting by their flocks, shielding themselves under their [?](sheep-coats).

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Left H4 – 3:20 P.M.

On H.S 5:15 “

May 11, 1944

Left H-5.

We are going across rolling plains, covered with great masses of basalt stones. A wide track has been cleared but thin, along which over machine is bumping its way. There are no settlements, tents, herds, – there is nothing of humans left to be seen. There is a slight tinge of green as a result of recent rains.

We stayed last night at H5. There are startlingly pleasant accommodations there. I was given

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a tremendous, high, well-armed room, equipped with lights, ceiling fan, and modern beds. Connected with it was a large and comfortable bath-room, with hot and cold running water laid on.

We delivered on Jeidi [?] to the police-post, and then came down to the compound, where I expected to spend a great evening. It was not to be. At 8PM two of the Jindis presented themselves, and said they were expecting me at the police-post, where they had killed a sheep for me. I was angry. When I remonstrated that I had specifically en-joined them not to do anything of the kind, and that they had agreed, they merely replied that I was an important guest. I gave in.

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According to their understanding, I had to accept their invitation. Had I not done so, they had the right to have the Haq on me, and make me pay the price of the sheep. They assured me it was ready. When I got there, I had to wait till 10 PM till it got ready!!!

JAWA (315)

Consists of a sort of a filthy spring, around which a crude biskeh has been dug, about 20 meters in circumference. The spring is at the West end of the Biskeh. There are two more Biskehs of about the same size/ East of this one,

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with no water in them, however, To the North are the rising, low hills beyond the Wadi Ghajil. The entire region is a forbidding, black basalt one. This place is simply a watering hole. There was a herd of goats on the North side of the wadi, and some camels. I can hear the shepherd boy singing. This scene could be a locality in Dante’s Inferno.

There are scraps of Roman-Byzantine sherds lying about, some glazed med. Arabic. There are numerous modern graves. There may have been a small police-post here in Roman times.

There are numerous fine flints found around the Birkehs.

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At Java, the road became so bad, that our [?] slung Ford could not get over the roads.

It is a crime to take the car along the track we are taking it westward. The spring rains have washed the truck full of holes, and basalt blocks are strewn everywhere. We are about half way to Deir et-Kahof, the stones are becoming fewer in number.

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Deir el-Kahaf (316)

Bukeh about 40 meters in diameter, widely circular, with small water- or guard tower at its West end. The Bukeh is on North side of Qasr. North of it, a few meters away is a smaller Bukeh. Numerous ancient cisterns, one still used on far North side. Large, tumble-down qasr.

Roman ([?] sigillata) byzantine and Arabic sherds in large quantities. Rain coming down again. Will have to beat it.

In a fairly open plain, surrounded by hills. Grain is sewn round about here. The inhabitants are Druze.

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Large gate on East side. 3 square towers on North and South sides. The present towers are obviously rebuilt, perhaps in Arabic times.

Inside are large rooms against the walls. The qasr is populated by several Druze families, the woman wearing colorful costumes, which look Byzantine or perhaps med-Arabic in origin. The Qasr inside is a mas of ruins. Great filth inside. The women wear a sort of turban, with a thin white veil over it, which is pulled over lower part of face.

Right Side:

Inside of courtyard are fallen pillar drums. The construction is typical of the region. Numerous ruins of buildings outside of Qasr (about 40 meters square), with blocked up cisterns. This is a large plain ringed in by low hills. The ploughed areas by the Qasr may have been fairly free of rocks originally, and industry of ancients has cleared it further.

It has rained hard, and sheets of water are round about.

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The ground fortunately has remained fairly hard, although we are skidding about. We just passed a stretch where the stones have been picked up, and the land is ploughed. Everywhere in this stony country, one sees sheep-folds of stone.

We have just succeeded in crossing another tiny wadi in which the water is running as a result of the rain, but have gotten stuck on the other side. We are putting on chains, and hope to get out.

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We are back on the asphalt. The rain is still flooding the land. The wadis are full. They all flow down to the Azuk basin [?].

Where the road from Umm el-Qetein reaches the asphalt road, on the North side of the road is a small, completely secured Roman-Byzantine police post, with numerous fire sherds round about. It is called Kh. Umm el-Masara (317). It is being used as a quarry today. We hit the Umm el-Qetein track before reaching the asphalt road now we are heading back to H-5.

Left Side:

May 12, 1944

We stayed at H-5 last night. It rained again, so I’m going home. The entire countryside is under water. The desert is greener than I have ever seen it. For the first time, probably because the air has been washed clean, I saw Jebel esh-Sheikh this morning while on the way back to Mafraq from H-5.

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Benzine, hotels, board, et.} 10.2000 + 1.030 = 11.230

Salameh received 15.000-11.230 = 3.770 remains

Salary 15.000-3.700 = 11.230{ paid

Salameh is paid up till May 23, 1944.

gear box and differential.

Left Side:


April 23, 1944. Started working.

IV: 8 Gharamil Khadrak (Khasin) [?]

:9 Bayie

:10-11 in tent at Bayie

:12 Bayie

V: -3-4 Bayie and Seil Umqat still running on May 10 [?].

:5 Ain Jaiva (May 11, 1944 North of H-5)

:6-7 Deir el-Kahef

:8 Gate on E side

Left Side:

I: 1, april. 25. Umm Umm Khambeh, triple dolmen, looking W-SW

:2 “ looking S.

:3 looking SSE

:4 el-Dug musah (Tell) looking North


:6 looking SE at North side of Tell Duqmusah

:7 Medever [?] police-post looking North.

:8 Ismail Bay

:9 Wall el Mu’aggar, looking S.

:10-12 School at Mu’aggar.

II:1-3 May 6, 1944

Shepherd and flock at small wadi east of Mu’aggar, where rain fell 3 days ago. The shepherd

Right Side:

Ever bringing the sheep to amman

II: 4-12 pictures at Amir

III: 1-2 spoiled

:3 part of wall of house of village of Amsi

Left Side:

^ (318)

Right Side:

May 26, 1944.

Came to Amman with 2 Roosevelts and Adrorovitch [?] yesterday. I stayed overnight with Kirkbrides. ^ Qwin Kibsh.

On way to Mafraq. Stopped to examine rujm on top of high hills, each hill having one crudely made, uncut stones, circularly built, going round as upward [?], they are either herdsmen’s watchtowers, or burial rujm- probably the latter. Between 2 of the hills, is a shallow wadi. At top of it, stone sheep-folds, by which were clear Roman, and a few Byzantine sherds, including one painted piece.

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South side of town, a basalt black about 1 meter long, 25 centimeters wide.

[Greek script]

The site is almost completely ruined. A bisbeh has been restored and recemented. It has 30 steps leading down, and about 10 covered with water now. The new houses and arches built just like ancient ones, piles of stones, or

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stone scaffolding being placed under them till arches are completed.

Sherds almost all Roman and Byzantine traces of mosaics.

Ancient basalt houses had coatings of plaster on inside.

Apparently churches here at one time.

At North end of town, in court of house, Cufic [?] inscription, built in bottom of square pillar.

A pottery figurine, female, arms broken, left completely gone, right almost completely broken, conical hat, legs broken, long tresses all around head, ears clearly showing.

Right Side:

There are numerous such inscribed tombstones.

Sheik Soud

Sheik Noif

Shofan Thahat

The figuring is from Dhubin in Jebel Druze [?].

There is an automobile in front of the tent. Sheikh Sa’ud is a youngish man.

Left Side:

There is cultivation in this region. As we went eastward to Dafyareh, more rocks appear, but there is still cultivation. There are several other small Qasrs in the vicinity, one Qasr er-pequis, and another el-Khan, all within sight between Sabhah and Dafiyaneh to the North of them.

Sabhah is east of Sabhuya, and not west of it as on map.

Right Side:

[Greek Script]

A large area with apparently many Greek inscribed tombstones. No complete or even ruined buildings. Not being reused either as houses or quarries.

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Smaller than Sabhah, almost completely destroyed, with new houses constructed out of ruins of old.

4 desikehs [?]. 2 fairly large, remains of walls around depressors, which had been artificially deepened. More in use today.

  1. line not clear.
  2. [Greek script]
  3. [Greek script]
  4. [Greek script]
  5. [Greek script]
  6. [Greek script]
  7. [Greek script]
  8. [Greek script]
  9. [Greek script]

about 1.5 meters long by opened sepulcher [?].

Right Side:

The sherds found here and at the rest of the sites in this region are Roman and Byzantine. Many of the Roman sherds are as fine and thin as any Nabataean sherds. But no painted Nabataean sherds visible on the surface.

We saw a perfectly splendid, approximately 7×5 meter cistern, still intact, which must be 15-20 meters deep, with originally steep steps leading down to it. It was originally roofed over, the 2 strong central roof arches still being intact. A short distance from it is a large settling tank, onto which

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The water was led from various channels. Near the top of it is an opening through which the settled waters could then flow into the covered cistern. The people here today depend on a few cisterns. In the above mentioned one, there are still plastered ones, and the cistern still holds water.

The soil is getting fairly rocky, but is cultivated in places.

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Umm el-Getein


On East side of deep, rectangular, originally arch [?] over cistern, where sides are still cemented.

[Greek script]

basalt block.

We have inscribed five ancient fairly small, rectangular cisterns, 2 still covered, and containing water.

There are many more. There is one tremendous bukeh, with no water

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In it, but which could easily be repaired. It is barely filled with dirt. This is in fairly rolling country cultivated, grain not growing this year.

To the east are some low hills. The site is completely destroyed, with the former Druze inhabitants gone. There is a small police post here with a wud[?]. My guide Aujan rode from here to Mafreq last night on a camel, it taking 7 hours. There are some hills to south too. This place may well be almost as big as Umm Jemal, although not as well preserved.

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I copied one inscription. There must be others. At all of those sites, there is also sigellate pottery.

In courtyard of building used as store-house is inscribed pillar-drum in Greek, very worn, sun on it. I cannot read it. Have photographed it.

Inside the building built into an arch, in a stone with a Byz. cross with a wreath around it. It may be in its original place. There were fleas in the room.

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Beaj-or Ba’ey


Situated on a knoll. A smallish site. We have come across plain from Mafraq and it was almost without any stones at all till we apt [?] here. This place is completely destroyed, and a modern stone hovel of a house has been built among the ruins. The land is cultivated hereabouts. It is lived in by an Arab family today.

The ground is littered, as in all these sites with masses of Roman and Byzantine pottery, much of the Roman type being as fragile and fine as any planted Nabataean. It may be Nabataean.

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On South side is a square biskeh, filled with dirt, rep. [?] to point where coating of small stones and lime had been placed against wall to make it water tight. It is about 17 meters square. The steps are in NE corner. About 10 steps lead down with Biskeh.

On North Side is another Bisqeh, 9×7 meters, oriented e-w, with stones and lime lining against basalt blocks, still intact. The arches which covered it with a roof are gone. There is still water in this Birqeh, which is about 10 meters deep.

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Qom el-Ham is visible from here. Dirt channels lead the water to those cisterns now, whereas originally they ran first into settling tomb [?], and the channels were stone lined.

About 20 meters west of it, is another deep Biskeh about 5 meters square, and modernly recemented. On East side, stones projected originally, which serve as steps. Water in it.

On the West side of the hill is the largest reservoir of them all, parts of the store facing in lime

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Still adhering to the basalt block walls, which slop inward. The steps are at SE corner. It is about 12 meters square. There are visible 20 steps leading down into it.

In other words, this one little place has 4 biskehs. Great quantities of water could be collected if they were repaired.

Just before getting here, we crossed the stone paved Roman road leasing to Bosreh [?].

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Umm Jemal, Umm Sereb, Kom Haman visible from here in plain. It was an intensively farmed and settled area. There must have been ten houses here.

At Kom Hamar, they say there is a large Biskeh full of water.

There are many sherds of the Umm Resas type in addition to Roman.

Right Side:

I: 1-7 Photos at Sabkha.

II: 8- {inscribed drum at Umm el-Getein}


:2-7 Byzantine cross and wreath around it in rebuilt building. Outside of it is inscribed Greek pillar drum.

II: 8 cistern at Ba’aj.


Left Side:

(251) Kh. El-Auja el-Tahta es-Sherqiyeh of. For Wadi el-Aiya

Smith, HGHL, pp. 77. 244. 245. 248. 250

Right Side:

June 9, 1944 es-Jerqiyeh

Kh. el-Aiya el-Jahta


very extensive site including large Arabic and large [?] on E side of road, with foundations of wadi left. One very large cistern, with mosaic flow around it, of house which stand over it. A great mosque originally near S end of site, very much served, foundations partly uncovered. Sherds Byz. and med. Arabic.



About 130 meters to ENE of it is a low mound, about 50 metres in diameter, with Rom-med. Arabic, but predominantly EI sherds.

Left Side:

(249a) Roman-Byzantine site N of Chalcolithic

Kh. Arja el-Jahta Gharhieh

(not marked on map)

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The whole very extensive area is water by the strong perennial stream of the Wadi Anja. Inward [?] banana [?] cultivation is being undertaken now. In Roman-Byzantine times this entire area must have been one vast garden.

About 300 meters to the W near the hills a large site on a low (249a) rise, literally covered with many Rom-Byz. sherds. The water flows by very strongly. Only about 15 Arab tents around here. Very few foundation ruins on this large

Left Side:

249. Kh. El-Aoja el-Tahta el. Gharbiyeh

Right Side:

Rise visible above ground, although outlines visible. This entire large W. site once enclosed with outer walls at W. and an enclosed courtyard of a main bldg. with a very fine square, ma[?] opening to a deep cistern in the middle of it, or rather near its W. end.

Chalcolithic site (249)

Very near W. edge of hills, and overlooking actual wadi bed, from which all water has been directed into channels now.

Right Side:

There are numerous pure Chalcolithic sherds on top of rolling land on east side of wadi, and on sides of small wadi too, the west sides of which are irrigated also. We are about WSW- of the two story house, and about 1.5 away from it. In all this area are also Rom.-Byz. sherds and mosaic.

Parts of the area are being planted to bananas today.

Left Side:


Kh. El-Beiyadlat

Right Side:

Kh. El-Beiyadhat


cultivation extends all the way from Kh. Ayah to here, and in rich plain extending from here towards Jordan. There is a large depression, in which water was caught. It is on the top slope, below the hills, where this dam is located and below it is a wide good stretch leading to Jordan, which is irrigated partly today from waters of Anja. There is a 1.5 thick wall visible on E side of dam, which is filled with dirt now. The

Right Side:

Water was fed probably there a [?] gate in the dam to fields below! The sherds are mainly Rom.-Byz.

Green sherds growing in [?] area, although round about things already burnt out.

Kh. Fasayil


(not visited, but looked at from distance) [sic]

Like previous site, numerous [?] foundations. It is located in a large V with part of V in hills, dom. On N by Qary Sartabh, not watered by perennial stream. This is a potentially rich area.

Left Side:



(by Wadi Fara)

Right Side:

Tell el-Mazar


Ghor narrow immediately East of Sartabah, and widens out again as one comes to Jeftlig and Tell Mazar. It is dominated by Qary Sartaleh. On W side of fair sized, reasonably high mound, are 2 low bumps, the S of which is covered with Rom-Byz. sherds. There are also med. Arabic and EI sherds on the mound, on top of which today is a modern house. This site dominates the outlet of the Wadi Fai’ah, which is a fairly wide elbow [?] of a plain.

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Foundation ruins visible on top of mound and on sides, mostly fairly late, I judge. From E side the mound is quite high and imposing, merely more so than when viewed from W side. On E side is descents steeply to lower cultivated Ghor floor of outlet of Wadi Fai’ah

Perennial stream, not very large, comes out of Wadi Far’ah.

Right Side:

T. Abu Lidreh


In the Zor proper a smallish mound, higher on E than W side, situated about ¾ kilometers from very which in this instance cuts close to Qattarahs on E side. There are about 5 tents here. The sherds are EI to Byz. This was never a very impotant site. It guards a path leading across the Jordan.

Immediately below tell to W is a completely ruined Roman. Byz. site almost flush with ground.

Right Side:


T. Deir Alla

Kh. Qasier

Some round stone circles, a few Rom. Byz. sherds. Tell Abu Lidreh visible in Zor below. On E side of river, all tells from Tell Deir Alla

[entry incomplete]


This place is on the bottom of a W bounded on N and S by small gullies that lead down to Qattarahs and Zor with T. Abu Sadreh to ESE-SE. This was an EI fort guarding ford across Jordan, leading to T. Deir Alla.

Several modern graves. Foundation walls of EI building. Hills to W rise about a kilometer away steeply. Sherds are EI then Byz.

M [sic]

It is in a “w” upside down, each line forming a little gully. The buildings are mainly on N side.

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Above the building is a main ledge looking to the bottom of hills. The two stone circles with a canty [?] cistern in center, may be watch-towers to guard approaches to buildings on edge of inverted “W” below this ledge. Below the inverted “W” is a steep descent to Zor proper. One of those stone circles is about 9 meters in diameter. The other about 10 meters to NW from it in about 5 meters in diameter. This whole site is on E side of modern road.

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On W side of road, about 70-20 meters from it are long lines of Roman (?) [sic] road with stones on either side, and exist in middle, each side about 3 meters wide.

There are however, some EI sherds also on this side in addition to Rom.-Byz.

Left Side:

Diarrage scheme -> [sic]

Right Side:

606- Wadi be turned off wall to Sedeh

50607- Kh. Qasur

50610- 18meters square Khan (?) [sic] with [?] entrance on E side, at base of hills.

The sherds of this site in the EI section are pure EI.

Resting places for cacarons [?] going to and from Tell Deir All, in Roman times. This is, however, the 3rd one we passed since Kh. Garen.

Marches 50616

Tell Mazer 50621

Right Side:

On W side is a line of stones of a wall (?) [sic]

Dolman site Wadi Abu el-Jeheis (from Qofqafa)


Steep hillsides descending to a small narrow wadi. The slopes of the wadi for kilometers on the side S of Qafqafa are littered with remains of massive dolmans in state of greater or lesser ruin. Pacts of these hillsides show definite remain of ancient terrace walls which probably go back to the dolman period. The highlands from here to Jerash also show remains of dolmens and remains of walls of terraces and buildings. The more I see of the dolman area,

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The more I am concerned that their builders were farmers. The upper parts of the wadi are cultivated. The top of the ridge or highend above the wadi must be 300 metres above it. Dhaharet el-Kim [?] is a small part of top. There are also some vertical as well as horizontal walls. Some double dolmans, like St. Louis apartments. Clear traces of Roman road on ridge leading from Birketari to Qafqafa.

Village of Qafqafa on a large Roman-Byzantine site.

Left Side:


ZDPV XLVIII, pp. A.367. 351-352

Right Side:

T. Qafqafa


62m x 58 m

Oriented NNW-SSE on N side of slip separating it from small village of Qafqafa, on whose hill are numerous Roman rectangular burial shafts. On the S side of this site are caves which have been turned into modern store room.

This place is a well-located, distinctively tell-like in appearance, on top of a fairly high, completely isolated hill. The approaches to which are quite gradual. It is on top of a ridge, below

Right Side:

which the land falls away sharply to the N. Khanseien is clearly visible in its high hill. This site once completely surrounded by a well.

Water obtained evidently from cisterns. The sherds are EI I + II, with some MB II, especially MB II A creamy slip ware [?].

The steepest side is on the N side. On the N the plains stretching to Yarmuk and Syria are visible.

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Dolmen site

SSW of Qafqafa


On a high flat topped hill, about 2 kilometers SSW of Qafqafa is a great, walled site, which has with its flat top, all the appearances of an EB site. We could not, however find a single sherd. On its E slope near its N end is a low heap [?], in which rough heum [?] stones set in large circles (?) [sic] are visible, which I believe conceals a dolman. It commands a view down the E side of this place, and on to Qafqafa to the N on top of a hill. Not a single sherd found on this site. There are some broken Dolmans on

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The W side of this flat topped hill and on the NW-top.

The heemp on this E side is about 11 meters in circumference. I think several other heemp on the same side might also well contain dolmens.

A hill, lower than this, N of here, also has walls on a fairly flat top.

A ruined round circle, at S end of this site, when survey spike is could also have been a dolman base.

Left Side:


Wad el-Kneije

Right Side:



June, 18, 1943.

An exceedingly spring or series of springs that pour out of a horizontal deposit of limestone rock, and form a rushing stream immediately. It is hardly used for cultivation, although there are small gardens and some fig trees by it. On the hillsides south of it leading to Wadi Zerqa are literally hundreds, many hundreds of very large dolmans.

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It is obvious that many of them were completely buried under tumuli, some being half buried. They usually point toward the wadi or descent they overlook. Those I have been phot. pt. west. Those on the other side of the small dip from here point East. Some of these are great massive dolmans, built up on a high round stone circles, with the dolman on top, and perhaps something buried underneath.

The dolman fields have

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been stretching from the East side of Nebi Hud to here. This is the largest dolman field I have ever seen.

Right Side:

Tell el-Meghaniyeh


A really tremendous site on a great, ploughed over, gradually sloping hill top, which descends towards the Zerqa, a large, wide bend of which is visible from here.

Immediately to the E and SE of us are the dolman hills. Great foundations of walls, houses? Stone circles are visible here. At the top ascent is a 15 meter diameter stone circle with a dip in the center. The sherds are exclusively EB, but terribly worn, and very difficult to find.

To the SE immediately below us, in a small wadi, but deep and steep, which runs into the Zerqa is a spring, Ain Khreisan. The EB sherds are not at all nec. contemp. with the Dolmens.

We are in an extremely hilly country. We have both had bad falls today, with the horses going down underneath us on steep hillsides.

A ridge of hills separates this site from Wadi Qeriyeh to N of it.

Left Side:


Wad el-madscharr- wad er-rijaschi

Right Side:

Kh. Riyashi (BA)

Kh. Riyashi (Rom-Byz)


much ruined Rom-Byz site, overlooking Ain el-Pir[?] and little fertile valley from N three small wudyan [?] from N, S, and W come together in this tiny valley.

Numerous large building blocks lying about. Site is covered with dried weeks, and dry wheat stalks, impossible to find sherds.

About half way down between Ain Riyashi and Ain Tannen, on the E side of the wadi are remains of another Rom-Byz stie, which probably are to be associated with Kh. Riyashi.

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